1.0 INTRODUCTION/COMPONENTS 7.5.2.15 EXAMPLE OF FIELD COMBAT
2.0 GAME SETUP 7.5.3 TRIVIAL COMBATS
3.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY OF THE GAME 7.5.4 SIEGES
4.0 * THE POLITICAL PHASE 7.5.4.1 BESIEGER ASSAULT ATTEMPTS
4.1 THE DIPLOMACY STEP 7.5.4.2 DEFENDER ATTACKS BESIEGER
4.2 THE DECLARATIONS OF WAR STEP 7.5.4.2.1 Garrison Attack Combats
4.2.1 POLITICAL POINT LOSSES FOR WAR DECLARATIONS 7.5.4.2.2 Political Points For Garrison Attack Combats
4.2.2 LIMITATIONS OF DECLARATIONS 7.5.4.2.3 Relieving Force-Limited Field Combats
4.2.3 EXTENT OF DECLARATIONS 7.5.5 REMOVAL OF CORPS
4.3 THE CALL TO ALLIES STEP 7.6 THE GUERILLA STEP
4.4 THE PEACE STEP 7.7 * THE CONQUEST STEP
4.4.1 INFORMAL PEACE 8.0 * THE ECONOMIC PHASE
4.4.2 SUING FOR PEACE 8.1 THE VICTORY POINTS STEP
4.4.3 CONDITIONAL PEACE 8.1.1 RECORDING VICTORY POINTS
4.4.4 UNCONDITIONAL PEACE 8.1.2 POSSIBLE BRITISH CHANGE IN VICTORY POINTS
4.4.5 SIMULTANEOUS PEACE WITH MULTIPLE ENEMIES 8.1.3 HOW TO WIN A GAME
4.4.6 EFFECTS OF PEACE 8.2 THE MONEY AND MANPOWER COLLECTION STEP
4.4.6.1 PRISONER EXCHANGE 8.2.1 MONEY COLLECTION
4.4.6.2 FORCE REPATRIATION 8.2.1.1 MONEY COLLECTION BY TAXATION
4.4.6.3 MANDATORY ENFORCED PEACE LENGTH 8.2.1.2 MONEY COLLECTION BY TRADE
4.4.6.4 STATUS OF CEDED MINOR FREE STATES 8.2.1.2.1 Domestic (Normal) Trade
4.4.7 SEPARATE PEACE AND ALLIES 8.2.1.2.2 Overseas Trade
4.4.8 A FINAL PEACE 8.2.1.2.2.1 British Colonial Trade
4.5 THE CREATING ALLIANCES STEP 8.2.1.2.2.2 American Trade
4.6 THE MINOR COUNTRY CONTROL STEP 8.2.1.2.2.2.1 American Trade Value
4.6.1 CONTROL CHANGE DUE TO INSTABILITY/FIASCO POLITICAL STATUS 8.2.1.2.2.2.2 Stopping American Trade-War With the United States
4.6.2 SELECTING CONTROLLING MAJOR POWERS 8.2.1.3 SPANISH GOLD
4.6.3 ASSUMING CONTROL PROCEDURE 8.2.2 MANPOWER COLLECTION
4.6.4 MORE THAN ONE DECLARATION OF WAR UPON A MINOR COUNTRY 8.2.3 MINOR FREE STATES MONEY AND MANPOWER COLLECTION
4.6.5 MAJOR POWER SUPPORT OF CONTROLLED MINOR COUNTRIES 8.3 THE LENDING MONEY STEP
4.6.6 LAPSE OF WAR WITH MINOR COUNTRIES 8.4 THE MANIPULATION STEP
4.7 THE BREAKING ALLIANCES STEP 8.4.1 OCCUPIED HOME NATION CAPITALS
4.8 THE FREE STATE DECLARATION STEP 8.4.2 ECONOMIC MANIPULATION (OPTIONAL)
4.9 THE DECLARATION OF COMBINED MOVEMENT STEP 8.4.3 RETURNING REMOVED LEADERS
5.0 THE REINFORCEMENT PHASE 8.5 MONEY AND MANPOWER EXPENDITURE STEP
5.1 * THE NAVAL REINFORCEMENT STEP 8.5.1 MAINTENANCE
5.1.1 PLACING EMPTY FLEET COUNTERS 8.5.2 FORMAL DEBTS
5.1.2 PLACING SHIPS 8.5.3 EXPENDITURE ON FORCES
5.1.3 TRANSFER OF SHIPS 8.5.4 EXPENDITURE ON NEW CORPS AND FLEET COUNTERS
5.1.4 REMOVING FLEETS AND SHIPS ("SCUTTLING") 8.5.5 SURPLUS MINOR FREE STATE MONEY AND MANPOWER
5.2 THE ARMY REINFORCEMENT STEP 8.5.6 * MILITIA CONVERSION (OPTIONAL)
5.2.1 CORPS COUNTER REINFORCEMENTS 8.5.7 SURPLUS MAJOR POWER MONEY OR MANPOWER
5.2.2 PLACING ARMY FACTORS 8.6 THE POLITICAL STATUS ADJUSTMENT STEP
5.2.3 TRANSFER OF ARMY FACTORS 8.7 THE CIVIL DISORDER STEP
5.2.4 REMOVING CORPS AND ARMY FACTORS ("DEMOBILIZING") 8.8 THE CEDING STEP
5.2.5 SCENARIO MONEY 8.9 THE NEW POLITICAL COMBINATIONS STEP (OPTIONAL)
5.3 LEADER RETIREMENT AND REINFORCEMENT 8.10 THE LEVY STEP
6.0 * THE NAVAL PHASE 8.11 THE UMP CONTROL STEP
6.1 THE NAVAL PHASE SEQUENCE 9.0 THE TIME RECORD PHASE
6.2 THE NAVAL MOVEMENT STEPS 9.1 WINTER
6.2.1 GENERAL NAVAL MOVEMENT RULES 9.2 WINTER ZONE
6.2.1.1 SEA MOVEMENT COSTS I. 10.0 MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL RULES.
6.2.1.2 PORT/BLOCKADE BOX MOVEMENT 10.1 IRREGULAR FORCES
6.2.l.3 DARDANELLES MOVEMENT 10.1.1 GUERILLAS
6.2.1.4 ICE LINE RESTRICTIONS 10.1.2 COSSACKS AND FREIKORPS
6.2.2 NAVAL MOVEMENT PROCEDURE 10.1.3 * TURKISH FEUDAL CORPS
6.2.3 NAVAL INTERCEPTIONS 10.1.4 AUSTRIAN INSURRECTION CORPS
6.2.4 INITIATION OF NAVAL COMBAT 10.1.5 THE AUSTRIAN TYROLIAN REVOLT CORPS
6.2.5 NAVAL TRANSPORTATION OF ARMY CORPS AND LEADERS 10.2 MINOR COUNTRIES AND CEDED PROVINCES CONTROL
6.2.5.1 TRANSPORTATION MOVEMENT PROCEDURE 10.2.1 THE CONQUEST OF MINOR COUNTRIES
6.2.5.2 FAILURE TO DISEMBARK 10.2.2 CONQUERING CEDED PROVINCES
6.2.5.3 ELIMINATION OF TRANSPORTING FLEETS 10.3 * FORCES IN OTHER COUNTRIES- ACCESS
6.2.6 ENEMY CONTROL OF A FLEET'S PORT 10.3.1 ACCESS
6.2.7 BLOCKADE OF PORTS 10.3.2 CITY OCCUPATION
6.3 THE NAVAL COMBAT STEP 10.3.3 NEUTRAL GARRISONS IN ENEMY TERRITORY
6.3.1 WHO MAY FIGHT 10.4 * MINOR COUNTRIES WITH DISTRICTS
6.3.2 POSSIBLE EVASIONS 10.5 * THE POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY
6.3.3 NAVAL COMBAT PROCEDURE 10.5.1 ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE
6.3.3.1 DETERMINING'THE WIND GAUGE 10.5.2 LOCATED IN THE INSTABILITY/ FIASCO ZONES
6.3.3.2 NAVAL COMBAT RESOLUTION 10.5.3 STATUS MODIFIERS
6.3.3.3 NAVAL COMBAT IN A PORT 10.6 LEADERS AND COMMAND
6.3.3.4 NAVAL COMBAT EXAMPLE 10.6.1 LEADERS WHO ARE COMMANDERS
6.3.4 NAVAL VICTORY AND POLITICAL POINTS 10.6.1.1 CHOOSING OR DETERMINING A COMMANDER
6.3.5 NAVAL RETREAT AND PURSUIT 10.6.1.2 COMMANDER USES
6.3.6 CONSOLIDATION OF LOSSES 10.6.1.2.1 Tactical Maximum Ratings
7.0 THE LAND PHASE 10.6.1.2.2 Tactical Ratings Comparisons
7.1 THE LAND PHASE SEQUENCE 10.6.1.3 COMMANDERS FOR PURSUIT
7.2 THE DEPOT CREATION/REMOVAL 10.6.2 LEADER MOVEMENT
7.2.1 DEPOTIIN A FRIENDLY CITY AREA 10.6.3 LEADER CAPTURE
7.2.2 DEPOT INSIDE A FRIENDLY PORT OR IN A PORT AREA 10.6.4 * RETURNING LEADERS
7.2.3 DEPOTS IN SUPPLY CHAINS 10.6.5 THE BERNADOTTE LEADER
7.2.3.1 SUPPLY SOURCE DEFINITION 10.7 * DARDANELLES CONTROL
7.2.3.2 SUPPLY CHAIN DEFINITION 10.8 SETTLING DISPUTES OPTIONAL RULES
7.2.3.3 SUPPLY CHAIN RESTRICTIONS 11.0 NEW POLITICAL COMBINATIONS
7.2.3.4 SUPPLY- CHAIN EXAMPLE 11.1 POLAND (GRAND DUCHY OF WARSAW)
7.3 THE LAND MOVEMENT STEP 11.2 * THE KINGDOM OF ITALY
7.3.1 GENERAL LAND MOVEMENT RULES 11.3 * THE KINGDOM OF WESTPHALIA
7.3.1.1 MOVEMENT ALLOWANCES 11.4 * THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA
7.3.1.2 FORCE MARCHING 11.5 * THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE
7.3.1.3 LAND MOVEMENT COSTS 11.6 * THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
7.3.1.4 FORAGING WHILE MOVING 11.7 * THE KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES
7.3.2 LAND MOVEMENT PROCEDURES 11.8 * ALTERNATE DOMINANT POWERS
7.3.3 MOVING INTO CITIES-DETACHING/ABSORBING FACTORS-GARRISONS 11.9 * POLITICAL RESTRICTIONS ON PEACE
7.3.3.1 DETACHING/ABSORBING FACTORS RESTRICTIONS 11.9.1 "BALANCE OF POWER" RESTRICTIONS ON LOSSES
7.3.3.2 CONVERTING ARMY FACTORS 11.9.2 GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE AT WAR
7.3.3.3 GARRISON FACTORS 12.0 MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS
7.3.3.4 CITY GARRISON CAPACITIES 12.1 * REINFORCEMENT OPTIONS
7.3.3.5 DEPOT GARRISON CAPACITY 12.1.1 MILITIA CONVERSION
7.3.4 MOVEMENT FROM CITIES 12.1.2 SHIP BUILDING LOCATIONS
7.3.5 * LANDING FROM SHIPS-"DISEMBARKING" 12.2 NAVAL OPTIONS
7.3.6 MOVING INTO AN ENEMY DEPOT AREA 12.2.1 OPTIONAL SEA CROSSING ARROWS
7.3.7 MOVING INTO COMBAT 12.2.1.1 CHANNEL ARROW
7.3.7.1 ENEMY CORPS OR CITY GARRISON IN AREA 12.2.1.2 DANISH/SWEDISH SEA CROSSING ARROWS
7.3.7.2 ENEMY COSSACK, FREIKORPS OR DEPOT GARRISON IN AREA 12.2.2 NAVAL RAIDING
7.3.8 DECLARATION OF COMBAT AND COMBINED MOVEMENT 12.2.3 MOVING LARGE FLEETS/TRANSPORTS
7.4 THE SUPPLY STEP 12.2.4 REDUCED NAVAL TRANSPORT CAPACITY
7.4.1 FORAGING 12.2.5 PROPORTIONAL NAVAL LOSSES
7.4.2 REGULAR (DEPOT) SUPPLY 12.3 LAND OPTIONS
7.4.3 * SEA SUPPLY 12.3.1 SUPPLY LIMITS PER DEPOT
7.4.4 * INVASION SUPPLY 12.3.2 BRITISH TRAINING
7.4.5 BESIEGED SUPPLY 12.3.3 CAVALRY OPTIONS
7.5 THE LAND COMBAT STEP 12.3.3.1 CAVALRY SUPERIORITY
7.5.1 GENERAL RULES OF LAND COMBAT 12.3.3.2 CAVALRY WITHDRAWALS
7.5.1.1 DEFENDER RETIREMENT INTO CITY 12.3.4 GUARD COMMITMENT
7.5.1.2 WHO MAY PARTICIPATE IN LAND COMBATS 12.3.5 ARTILLERY CORPS
7.5.1.3 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF LAND COMBATS 12.3.6 PROPORTIONAL LAND LOSSES
7.5.2 FIELD COMBAT PROCEDURE 12.3.7 ARMY LEADER OPTIONS
7.5.2.1 STEP ONE-SELECTION OF CHITS 12.3.7.1 CORPS LEADERS
7.5.2.2 STEP TWO-OUTFLANK ANNOUNCEMENT 12.3.7.2 FURTHER TACTICAL RATING REDUCTIONS
7.5.2.3 STEP THREE-DIVIDING AN OUTFLANKING FORCE 12.3.7.3 NAPOLEON'S RATINGS
7.5.2.4 STEP FOUR-REVEAL CHITS 12.3.8 DETACHING/ABSORBING MINOR FREE STATE FACTORS
7.5.2.5 STEP FIVE-RESOLVE WITHDRAWALS 12.3.9 NO CEDING
7.5.2.6 STEP SIX-REVEAL FORCES/ MORALE LEVELS 12.3.10 OVERWHELMING NUMBERS
7.5.2.6.1 Determining Morale Levels 12.4 * PEACE TREATY LIMITED ACCESS
7.5.2.6.1.1 Method One 12.5 * ECONOMIC MANIPULATION
7.5.2.6.1.2 Method Two 12.6 BLANK FORMS
7.5.2.6.2 Final Morale Levels 12.7 LEADER CASUALTIES
7.5.2.6.3 Reveal Forces 12.8 * ALLIED VOLUNTARY ACCESS
7.5.2.7 STEP SEVEN-FIND COMBAT TABLES 12.91 * AMERICAN TRADE OPTION
7.5.2.7.1 River Crossing Combat Tables 13.0 SCENARIOS
7.5.2.7.2 Outflanking Tables to Use 13.1 SCENARIO FORMAT
7.5.2.7.3 Combat Table Modifiers 13.21 THE 1805 (INTRODUCTORY) SCENARIO
7.5.2.8 STEP EIGHT-GUARD AND ARTILLERY USE (OPTIONAL) 13.3 THE 1809 SCENARIO
7.5.2.9 STEP NINE-COMBAT RESOLUTION 13.4 THE 1812 SCENARIO
7.5.2.9.1 Die Roll Modifiers 13.5 THE 1813-1814 DER BEFREIUNGSKRIEG SCENARIO
7.5.2.9.2 Percentage Loss-Types of Casualties 13.6 THE PENINSULAR WAR SCENARIO (1808-1814)
7.5.2.9.3 Morale Loss 14.0 * CAMPAIGN GAMES
7.5.2. 10 STEP TEN-VICTORY AND DEFEAT 14.1 CAMPAIGN GAME FORMAT
7.5.2.10.1 Winning a Field Combat 14.2 THE SELECTION OF MAJOR
7.5.2.10.1.1 Breaking 14.2.1 SELECTION PROCEDURE
7.5.2.10.1.2 Pinning Force Defeat 14.2.2 CONTROL OF MULTIPLE MAJOR POWERS (4-6 PLAYERS)
7.5.2.10.1.3 Political Points For Winning/Losing Field Combats 14.3 UNCONTROLLED MAJOR POWERS (UMPS) (2-4 PLAYERS)
7.5.2.10.2 Pursuit After Combat 14.3.1 GAINING CONTROL OF UMPS
7.5.2.10.3 Retreat After Losing a Combat 14.3.2 RULES FOR USING UMPS
7.5.2.10.4 Unusual Field Combat Results 14.4 THE 1805-1807 CAMPAIGN
7.5.2.10.4.1 Break and Eliminated 14.5 THE 1812-1815 CAMPAIGN
7.5.2.10.4.2 Both Break 14.6 THE 1813-1815 CAMPAIGN
7.5.2.11 STEP ELEVEN-REINFORCING ATTEMPTS 14.7 THE GRAND CAMPAIGN GAME
7.5.2.12 STEP TWELVE-ARRIVAL OF OUTFLANKING FORCES 15.0 PLAYER NOTES
7.5.2.13 STEP THIRTEEN-"END OF DAY" WITHDRAWAL/ADDITIONAL COMBAT 16.0 GLOSSARY
7.5.2.13.1 Withdrawing After A "Day" of Combat 17.0 DESIGNER'S NOTES
7.5.2.13.2 New "Days" of Combat CREDITS
7.5.2.14 STEP FOURTEEN-DEPOTS AFTER FIELD BATTLES POLITICAL POINTS CHART

EMPIRES IN ARMS is a strategic and diplomatic game for upto 7 players that covers the Napoleonic wars from 1805 until 1815.The military counters in the game generally represent corps andfleets, with each army factor being equivalent to roughly 1000 to2000 men and each "ship" equivalent to 1 ship of the line or a number of smaller ships of approximately equal force.

[ 1.1 ] THE MAP: The game is played on two maps which, when placed together, show Europe and parts of Asia and North Africa. It is divided into "areas" by colored lines for the purpose of regulating movement. Some of these lines have additional functions-as national or provincial borders and/or as rivers. These lines and all other mapboard terrain features are identified on the TERRAIN EFFECTS CHART printed in the northwest corner of the combined mapboard.

[ 1.2 ] THE COUNTERS: There are eight sets of counters-one for each of the major powers and one for the minor neutrals. All counters have a distinctive background colour-white for Austria, green for Russia, light green for Turkey, blue for Prussia, light blue for France, red for Great Britain, yellow for Spain and gray for the neutrals. The motifs on the counters are decorative and functional, distinguishing infantry and cavalry corps, fleets, and depots and also provide information necessary for the play of the game. There are two sizes of counters provided in the game-the large counters for corps, fleets and depots, and the small counters for garrisons and off-map counters, guerrillas, cossacks and freikorps, control flags, leaders and assorted markers. The information provided on each counter is shown as follows:

COUNTER NOTES:

a: Movement Allowance of "(3)" becomes "4" if French controlled and movement allowance of remains "3" regardless of control (see 7.3.1.1). If movement allowance is "5" the counter is a cavalry corps.

b: Regular infantry if in garrison.

c: Militia infantry if in garrison.

d: C. of the Rhine, K. of Bavaria, K. of Italy, K. of Westphalia, Ottoman Empire, Poland.

e: For Prussians, the first number is pre-1810 and the one in parenthesis is for 1810 and after.

[ 1.3 ] THE RULES: The rules are written in sequence of play order. As rules sections are read, it is helpful to pull out and examine the component or chart being discussed while reading the rule. Some rules relate only to the campaign games and are not required for play of the scenarios. Rules used only for the campaign games are denoted by an asterisk (*) in the rule heading. An asterisk with any rule heading indicates that all of that rule and all of its subsidiary rules are ignored for play of the scenarios. Players should play at least a scenario or two to familiarize themselves with the game's combat and supply mechanics before trying a campaign game. A table of contents is provided to help find and reference rules during the play of a game.

[ 1.4 ] THE GAME CARD: The Game Card contains the most commonly used charts and tables for easy reference during a game. Two copies are included.

[ 1.5 ] THE NATIONAL CARDS: The seven National Cards for the major powers have two sides, and players may use either side in a game, as desired. Side one is used with small garrison/strength counters to record the strengths of corps and fleets and with economic manipulation markers for economic manipulation (see option 12.5) and is recommended for use with the scenarios. Side two must be copied, with pencils and erasers used to record and modify necessary information and is recommended for use with the campaign games. The card for the minor countries also has two sides. Side one is used to record the strengths of corps and fleets the same as the major power cards' side one, while side two has forms for use with option 12.6 and must be copied (numerous copies needed) and cut up for use. If side two of the major power's national cards are used side one of the Minor Country National Card is not needed as strengths can be recorded on the major powers' copies of side two.

[ 1.6 ] THE STATUS CARD: This card is used with small counters to record political status, victory points and the game date. The back contains additional forms to be copied and cut up for use with option 12.6.

[ 1.7 ] THE DICE: Two 6-sided dice are included.

[ 1.8 ] OTHER: Pencils and scratch paper (not included) are useful.

2.0 GAME SETUP

After players decide which scenario or campaign game to play, the following must be done to prepare for play.

[ 2.1 ] SELECTION OF MAJOR POWERS: For the scenarios, players may utilize any preferred method to select sides. For the campaign games we recommend the procedure covered in 14.2.

[ 2.2 ] SCENARIO SETUP: The setup for each scenario is described in the scenario rules (see 13.0), and the setup for each campaign game is found in the campaign game rules (see 14.0). These contain needed specific setup information not found here.

[ 2.3 ] MAPBOARD AND GAMING AREA SETUP: The two maps should be counter folded to lay flat and placed together so that they match up. EMPIRES RV ARMS is a large game that requires a large area in which to play, and any table selected should be large enough not only to hold the maps but also to provide room for the various cards to be placed near and around the maps.

[ 2.4 ] COUNTER SETUP: This is covered in more detail in 13.0 and 14.0.

2.4.1 MAPBOARD COUNTERS: The forces on the map are represented by various counters. The strengths of garrisons (use garrison/strength counters), Cossacks, freikorps and guerrillas are directly shown by the factor on the actual counter. These actors are totally interchangeable within their type (e.g., a "5" factor militia garrison counter may be exchanged for a "2" factor plus a "3" factor militia counter, etc.). Each cossack or freikorps counter is worth exactly one factor. The strengths of corps and fleet counters are recorded off the map.

2.4.2 USING THE NATIONAL CARDS: The maximum strengths of corps and fleets are shown on the appropriate National Cards (one card per major power, and one for all of the minor countries). The corps and fleet counters when face-up on the map only how their general type and movement allowance. Which corps each counter represents is shown on the back of the counter and may be examined by only the owning player, except when its identity must be revealed to other players (e.g., during a combat-see 7.5.2.6.3). The designation of each fleet (and its movement allowance) is shown on the front of the counter and so its designation and exact strength should always be known to all players.

2.4.2.1 USING SIDE ONE OF THE NATIONAL CARDS: Side one of each National Card contains spaces for indicating the strength of every corps and fleet of that major power or of the minor countries.

2.4.2.1.1 Showing Strengths: The number in each box indicates the maximum number of ships or army factors of that type that that corps or fleet may contain. The current strength of a corps is shown by the placement of garrison/strength counters in the appropriate boxes. For this purpose, use any national or neutral infantry or militia garrison/strength counter or counters. The counters used can be of any type or nationality, as it is their strength and the box they occupy that determine their effect and what they represent. For example, a French militia counter of "3" factors in a Russian cavalry box acts as "3" cavalry factors, not as militia. These factors are also interchangeable (e.g., a "2" and a "1 " factor counters can be exchanged for a "3" factor counter, etc.), as with the garrison strengths (see 2.4. 1). Note that most corps for most major powers allow for a maximum number of regular infantry and/or militia factors plus an additional number of cavalry factors (plus an additional number of guard factors in some cases).

2.4.2.1.2 Altering Strengths: The current strength of a corps or fleet is altered as strengths vary (e.g., because of swapping factors between corps, combat losses, foraging losses, garrison detachments, etc.) by changing the number of factors in the appropriate boxes of that corps or fleet.

2.4.2.1.3 Economic Manipulation (Optional): If option 12.5 is used, the major power's economic manipulation markers should be initially placed in the "O" boxes of their ECONOMIC MANIPULATION DISPLAYS.

2.4.2.2 USING SIDE TWO OF THE NATIONAL CARDS: Side two of the major power National Cards is recommended for campaign games because most garrison/strength counters will be required to show garrisons and also because other sections are handy for maintaining economic and reinforcement records for both the major powers and their controlled minor free states. This side of the cards should be photocopied and used simply by penciling in information and erasing as changes are made.

2.4.2.2.1: Corps and fleet strengths for both the major power and its controlled minor free states can be penciled in and erased and adjusted as necessary.

2.4.2.2.2: Money expenditures between Economic Phases, prisoners, etc. can be recorded on any free space on the copies.

2.4.2.2.3: Economic manipulation (see option 12.5) is recorded as part of the ECONOMIC AND MANPOWER WORKSHEET on side two plus using the ECONOMIC MANIPULATION DISPLAYS on side one.

2.4.3 STATUS CARD SETUP: The displays on this card record game information.

2.4.3.1 TIME: Place the Turn markers (month and year) in the appropriate boxes of the TIME DISPLAY to match the starting date of the scenario or campaign.

2.4.3.2 * VICTORY POINTS: Place the victory point markers (three per major power) on the VICTORY POINTS DISPLAY to record each major power's starting victory points as given in the campaign. Use the negative sides to show negative points (possible in campaign games starting in 1805 if 14.2 and/or 14.3 are used) and the positive sides to show positive points.

2.4.3.3 * POLITICAL STATUS: Place the political status markers (one per major power) on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY to record each major power's starting political status as given in the campaign. The starting boxes for each campaign are identified by letters for the major power (i.e., "Tu" =Turkey) and Roman numerals referenced to the campaign games on the "Campaign Setup" line of the boxes. The POLITICAL POINTS CHART on the back of this rulebook is for reference when using the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY.

3.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY OF THE GAME

A "Turn" in EMPIRES IN ARMS represents one month of real time. Each Turn consists of a number of "phases" which may be further broken down into "steps. " Each phase or step is completed by all players before going to the next. Any phases or steps that do not apply during a Turn can be skipped. The sequence of a Turn (also given on the Game Card) is as follows:

[ 3.1 ] * THE POLITICAL PHASE: See 4.0. Players interact to achieve the game's political goals. This phase is performed in steps, as follows:

A. The Diplomacy Step.

B. The Declarations of War Step.

C. The Call to Allies Step. The order of calling is determined by competitive die rolls.

D. The Peace Step. Peace term selection order is determined by the order the major powers went to war.

E. The Creating Alliances Step.

F. The Minor Country Control Step. Setup in the order: France, Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain.

G. The Breaking Alliances Step.

H. The Free State Declaration Step.

I. The Declaration of Combined Movement Step.

[ 3.2 ] THE REINFORCEMENT PHASE: See 5.0. Reinforcements are introduced into the game and strength factors are transferred or eliminated. This phase is performed in steps, as follows:
A *. The Naval Reinforcement Step. The major powers perform this step in the order; Spain, France, Prussia, Austria, Turkey, Russia, Great Britain.

B. The Army Reinforcement Step. The major powers perform this step in the order; Spain, Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Turkey, Russia, France.

[ 3.3 ] * THE NAVAL PHASE: See 6.O. All naval operations are handled. The major powers perform this phase in the sequence; Great Britain (any announced position in the sequence), Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, France, Spain. As each major power performs this phase, the following steps are performed in order:

A. The Naval Movement Step.
B. The Naval Combat Step.

[ 3.4 ] THE LAND PHASE: See 7.0. All land operations are handled. The major powers in campaign games perform this phase in the sequence; France (any announced position in the sequence), Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain. In scenarios the French always go first, followed by all of the other major powers on the other side. As each major power performs this phase, the following steps are performed in order.

A. The Depot Creation/Removal Step'

B. The Land Movement Step.

C. The Supply Step.

D. The Land Combat Step.

(1) Resolve field, limited field and trivial combats.

(2) Resolve siege combats.

E. The Guerrilla Step.

F. * The Conquest Step.

A-E: Perform in each major power's sequence.

[ 3.5 ] * THE ECONOMIC PHASE: See 8.0. This phase occurs only every three months-at the end of the March, June, September and December Turns. This phase is performed in steps as follows:

A. The Victory Points Step.
B. The Money and Manpower Collection Step.
C. The Lending Money Step.
D. The Manipulation Step.
E. The Money and Manpower Expenditure Step.
F. The Political Status Adjustment Step.
G. The Civil Disorder Step.
H. The Ceding Step.
I. The New Political Combinations Step (see options 11. I- 11. 6 and 11.8).
J. The Levy Step.
K. The UMP Control Step.

[ 3.6 ] THE TIME RECORD PHASE: See 9.0. The passage of a Turn is recorded.

4.0 * THE POLITICAL PHASE

The actions of the Political Phase occur in the following order of steps and during this phase only. The exception to this is declaration of war, which can also occur at other specified times (see 4.3, 4.6.4.2, 4.6.5, 6.3.1.2.2 and 7.3.8.3).

[ 4.1 ] THE DIPLOMACY STEP: During this step, an agreed-upon period of time is set aside for discussion among the players. We recommend no more than 5-10 minutes to keep the game moving. Generally, players will wish to separate into pairs or small groups and move out of earshot of others for "secret" negotiations. This is the time to talk to other players about getting together for declarations of war, checking to see if allies will respond if called, preliminary discussions about peace terms, asking if others wish to ally, deciding on combined movements and their announcement, expressing pleasure or displeasure, making promises and threats, etc.

[ 4.2 ] THE DECLARATIONS OF WAR STEP: Next, each player secretly writes down every major power or neutral minor country upon which he has chosen to declare war (if any). Players not declaring war may wish to write "no declarations" just to keep everybody guessing. All declarations are revealed simultaneously. In order for a major power and its controlled minor countries to attack another major power or neutral minor country or their forces, a declaration of war must have been made between them during this step (EXCEPTIONS: see 4.3, 4.6.4.2, 4.6.5, 6.3.1.2.2 and 7.3.8.3). A major power that declares war is called an "aggressor", and a major power or neutral minor country upon which war is declared is called a "defender".

4.2.1 POLITICAL POINT LOSSES FOR WAR DECLARATIONS: Major powers lose political points for each of their declarations and these changes must be recorded (see the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card).

4.2.1.1: A major power loses three political points whenever it declares war on another major power. Additionally, if a major power declares war on an ally, there is an additional loss of two political points for breaking the alliance by the declaration of war.

4.2.1.2: A major power loses one political point for each district (see 10.4) in a neutral minor country when it declares war on that minor country, unless no major power can be found to run that minor country (see 4.6).

4.2.2 LIMITATIONS OF DECLARATIONS: A major power may declare war within the following limitations:

4.2.2.1: A major power may not declare war on another major power or neutral minor country if the declaring major power has corps, freikorps, cossacks, garrisons or guerrillas within the second major power's territory or within that neutral minor country.

4.2.2.2: A major power already at war with another major power may not declare war on other major powers if unbeseiged enemy infantry corps are already inside its home nation.

4.2.2.3: War may not be declared on a neutral minor country if it is physically impossible for the declaring major power to enter the minor country's territory during the Turn.

4.2.2.4: A major power may not declare war against another major power if restricted by an enforced peace (see 4.4.6.3). EXCEPTIONS: See 6.3.1.2.2 and provisions of peace term B.6 (see VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card.

4.2.3 EXTENT OF DECLARATIONS: A declaration of war on a major power is also (at no further cost in political points) a declaration of war on all of its controlled minor countries. Controlled minor countries may not have war declared upon them separately.

[ 4.3 ] THE CALL TO ALLIES STEP: Any major power who has in this Political Phase declared war on another major power or has had war declared upon it, may demand that an ally immediately declare war on the new enemy, if not already at war with that enemy. If there is more than one declaration of war during a Declaration of War Step, the order in which defending and then ally to more than one major power simultaneously, the same or aggressor players may "call to allies" is determined by competitive die rolls.

4.3.1 ALLY CALLING PROCEDURE: A player may call on some allies and not on others, at the calling player's discretion.

4.3.1.1: The defender calls his allies first, and then an aggressor may call his allies only if the defender has attempted to do so. If there were multiple declarations of war, all defenders call on their allies followed by (if allowed) all aggressors.

4.3.1.2: If two major powers declare war on each other simultaneously, they are both considered aggressors and thus neither may call allies.

4.3.1.3: Should a called ally of a defender refuse a call, that refusing ally is considered to have broken the alliance and loses the requisite political points ("-2" -see the POLITICAL POINTS CHART on the back of these rules). If any allies of an aggressor refuse his call to allies, both the ally and the aggressor are considered to have broken the alliance, with both losing the requisite political points ("-2") for breaking an alliance.

4.3.1.4: If any ally cannot declare war because of peace-time restrictions (an enforced peace-see 4.4.6.3), that ally may not be called upon. If an ally cannot declare war for other reasons (see 4.2.2. 1 and 4.2.2.2), the ally can still be called and, since the call cannot be answered, will be forced to break its alliance.

4.3.2 ANSWERING A CALL: Allies called upon may only declare war upon the original aggressor or defender-further declarations of war resulting from a call to allies do not permit a further call to allies.

[ 4.4 ] THE PEACE STEP: Peace may be made only at this time. A lapse of war with a minor country may also occur during this step (see 4.6.6). Peace must be in one of the following forms.

4.4.1 INFORMAL PEACE: Two major powers may informally agree to a peace between themselves on whatever general terms they decide, none of which are enforceable, and no political points are involved. An informal peace may never involve removing forces, the immediate ceding of territory, corps on loan, royal marriages, removal of leaders or dissolving or re-establishing the Holy Roman Empire. In this case there is no 18 month enforced peace and no enforceable reparations, trade restrictions, etc. can be imposed but forces are repatriated (see 4.4.6.2). If major powers simultaneously sue each other for peace (some players prefer to have this written and revealed simultaneously), they _must_ both accept an informal peace.

4.4.2 SUING FOR PEACE: A major power wishing to "surrender" may "sue" for peace. Minor countries may not sue for peace, although peace can come through a "lapse" in a war (see 4.6.6),

4.4.2.1: A major power may not sue for peace to another major power that does not have forces within the suing home nation’s borders unless, at the same time, it sues for peace to all major powers with which it is at war.

4.4.2.2: When a major power sues for peace, the opponent must then offer a "formal peace," either a "conditional peace, " which must be accepted, or an 1 unconditional peace, which may be accepted only if the suing player desires. If desired, and several major powers are being sued for peace, have each player write down 'conditional' or 'unconditional' before revealing all the peace proposals simultaneously.

4.4.2.3: Political points change as follows (also see the POLITICAL POINTS CHART on the back of these rules):

4.4.2.3.1 Conditional Surrender: A major power accepting the conditional surrender of another major power gains "+3" political points. A major power that surrenders conditionally to any number of other major powers at the same time (but does not surrender unconditionally to any other major power at that same time) loses
"-5" political points.

4.4.2.3.2 Unconditional Surrender: A major power accepting the unconditional surrender of another major power gains "+5" political points. A major power that surrenders unconditionally to any number of other major powers at the same time (some simultaneous surrenders may be conditional, but at least one must be unconditional) loses "-8" political points.

4.4.3 CONDITIONAL PEACE: If the peace is conditional, the loser surrenders and chooses one "peace condition" (also called a "peace term")that will apply to him with that victor from list "A" of the VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card and the victor chooses up to two peace conditions from list "B" not conflicting with the list "A" choice. If surrendering condition ally to more than one major power simultaneously, the same or a different peace condition from list "A" may be selected for each victor.

4 4.4 UNCONDITIONAL PEACE: If the peace is unconditional, each victor chooses up to three conditions from lists "B" and/or "C" and the surrendering loser does not get a choice from list "A". Certain choices in list "B" preclude choices from "C" and vice-versa, as shown on the VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card.

4.4.5 SIMULTANEOUS PEACE WITH MULTIPLE ENEMIES: If a major power makes peace by "surrendering" to two or more enemies at once, it loses only one (the larger, if there is a difference) set of political points.

4.4.5. 1: The victors choose their peace terms on an alternating basis until each has gained the maximum number of peace terms possible and/or desired or all peace terms available for that type of surrender have been taken.

4.4.5.2: Victors choose their alternating peace terms in the order that they went to war with the surrendering power-if the victors went to war at the same time (a major power that went to war as a result of a call from an ally is considered to have gone to war after the caller), resolve the order of choice by competitive die rolls.

4.4.5.3: Regardless of the number of victors, no peace term may be chosen more than once (EXCEPTION: peace term C.6, which all victors must choose as one of their selections to go into effect). For example, if one victor chose peace term B.4 (which also precludes choices B.1 and Cl ), no other victor could choose B.1, B.4 or C.].

4.4.6 EFFECTS OF PEACE: When two major powers make any type of peace, the following are always done:

4.4.6.1 PRISONER EXCHANGE: All surrendered factors and captured leaders are mutually exchanged. The exchanged factors are placed the same as reinforcements (see 5.2 and 5.3) during the next Reinforcement Phase. This is the only time prisoners are exchanged, although captured leaders may be returned at other times at the captor's option (see 10.6.3).

4.4.6.2 FORCE REPATRIATION:All corps in the other major power's territory are picked up and moved to the nearest area or areas in a now (after the control of ceded territories has been marked) friendly-controlled province or minor country. Similarly, garrisons are picked up and moved to the nearest friendly area or areas where depots and/or cities are available to hold the factors. If two or more areas are equidistant, the owning player chooses the area, or may choose to place some forces in some of or each of the equidistant areas. All depots in the other major power's territory are just picked up. All fleets (unless given permission to stay) must leave during the next Naval Phase. EXCEPTION: If the victor chooses peace term C.5, none of the victor's forces may be repatriated, but garrison factors in capital cities must (except with permission to stay) be moved to the nearest possible area(s) that can hold them that is not a capital city.

4.4.6.3 MANDATORY ENFORCED PEACE LENGTH: Except for an informal peace, neither major power may declare war on the other for 18 months (EXCEPTIONS: see 6.3.1.2.2 and provisions of peace term B.6). Certain peace terms may extend this time period for the loser (see peace terms B.2 and C.2 on the VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card). Keep written records of when peaces are made and when major powers may again go to war.

4.4.6.4 STATUS OF CEDED MINOR FREE STATES: Any major power that acquires minor free states as a result of peace conditions B.7 or C.4 may accept them as they are with their forces or immediately change them to conquered minor countries and remove their forces as in 8.8.5.

4.4.7 SEPARATE PEACE AND ALLIES: If a major power surrenders to some but remains at war with other major powers, a major power with which war continues may demand that an ally or allies that was a victor in the formal peace immediately break their alliance(s) with the major power still at war (and lose "-2" political points for breaking the alliance). For example, Russia and Austria are allies and are both at war with Prussia. Prussia surrenders to Austria, but not to Russia. The Russian player may demand that Austria break its alliance with Russia. An ally may also demand that an ally that concludes an informal peace with a common enemy break their alliance.

4.4.8 A FINAL PEACE: If, as a result of a formal peace, a major power's province containing its home nation's capital is ceded (which can only be done if no alternate province is available for ceding), that major power is permanently out of the game and all of its home nation forces are permanently eliminated from the map.

[ 4.5 ] THE CREATING ALLIANCES STEP: New formal alliances are now announced and each of the two major powers that ally gain political points (see the POLITICAL POINTS CHART on the back of these rules).

4.5.1: Major powers who are already allied may not re-ally with each other.

4.5.2: Major powers at war with one another may not ally.

4.5.3: Major powers that broke an earlier alliance may not re-ally until at least twelve months after the date of breaking the earlier alliance (keep written records of when alliances are broken).

[ 4.6 ] THE MINOR COUNTRY CONTROL STEP: A major power must, if possible, be chosen to run each neutral minor country upon which war has been declared. The major power chosen must not be at war with that neutral minor country and may only be an ally of a major power at war with it if there are no non-allies willing or eligible to run it. If there is no major power willing or eligible to run the minor country, no attacker loses political points for declaring war on it and it's forces are not set up. (See 10. 2. 1 for conquering min or neutral countries.)

4.6.1 CONTROL CHANGE DUE TO INSTABILITY/FIASCO

POLITICAL STATUS: If a controlling major power's political status marker is located in' the Instability or Fiasco Zones on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card during a Minor Country Control Step, its controlled minor countries may change control or revert to neutral status at the start of this step (see 10.5.2 for details).

4.6.2 SELECTING CONTROLLING MAJOR POWERS: The major power who will run the minor country is that with the highest modified die roll, with any ties being decided by additional competitive unmodified die rolls. Each eligible major power that wishes do so may roll a die, modifying the result by:

4.6.2.1 NATIONAL MODIFIERS: Find the national modifiers on the MINOR COUNTRIES CHART on the Game Card Next to the name of each minor country in the "National Modifiers" column, is the national modifier located under an abbreviation of each major power.

4.6.2.2 STATUS MODIFIERS: See the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card. The "Status Modifier" is given to the right of each line or "zone. " For example, if a major power's political status marker is in a box of the Dominant Zone, the modifier is "+1".

4.6.2.3 ALREADY AT WAR: If already at war with any of the major powers who have declared war on that minor neutral, a +2 modifier applies.

4.6.3 ASSUMING CONTROL PROCEDURE:

4.6.3.1 MARKING CONTROL: The major power selected to run the minor country gains a political point per district (see 10.4) in the minor country (record on the POLITICAL POINTS CHART on the Status Card), and, to show control, places one of its control flags in the minor country. If the minor country has no forces, a conquered control flag is placed there. If the minor count has forces, that player places a free state control flag in that country and immediately sets them up. Once a player has been selected to run a minor country, that minor country may no longer incur separate declarations of war, until it returns to neutrality.

4.6.3.2 ORDER OF SETUP: If the forces of a number of different minor countries all need to be set up, they should be set up by the controlling major powers in the order: France, Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain.

4.6.3.3 INITIAL STRENGTH FACTORS: The MINOR COUNTRIES CHART on the Game Card shows the starting minor country strengths in infantry ("If"), cavalry ("Cv") and ships ("Sh") for campaign games starting in the given years. This chart also shows the state of each minor country at the start of these campaign games-whether it is neutral, conquered, a free state, what major power controls it, etc.

4.6.3.4 LAND SETUP: Any, all or none of the minor country corps are set up in any area(s) of that minor country and it's initial army strength factors distributed among those corps and/or as garrisons.

4.6.3.5 FLEET SETUP: If the minor country has a fleet, it is set up in any port in that minor country or- in any sea area adjacent to such a port, at its current strength.

4.6.3.6 POLITICAL POINTS F'ROM CONTROL: The major power controlling the minor free state gains and loses political points for any combats involving the minor country's forces.

4.6.4 MORE THAN ONE DECLARATION OF WAR UPON A MINOR COUNTRY: If more than one major power has declared war on the same neutral minor country in the same Turn, any of the major powers may back down from the war declaration (but still lose the political points for the declaration)-if necessary, the involved players should secretly write down their, intentions and reveal them simultaneously. If any two major powers who are both in a period of enforced peace (see 4.4.6.3) with each other and hence are not able to declare war upon one another, both declare war upon the same minor country then the must both back down, still paying the political point cost for the war declaration. If a major power is unable to declare war on any other major power that also declared war on the minor country for any other reasons (see 4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 or for portions of a loser's enforced peace that exceed a winner's enforced peace), that major power must back down, still paying the political point cost for the war declaration. Major powers are not considered to have broken an alliance by these actions.

4.6.4.1 RETAINING CONTROL: If, after this, no major powers remain at war (including a lapse of war-see 4.6.6) with the minor country it remains in the control of the major power who gained control through 4.6.2.

4.6.4.2 FORCED WAR DECLARATIONS: If two or more major powers do not back down and remain at war with the minor country, each must declare war on all the other major powers also attacking the minor country (if not already at war with them all). All those remaining major powers are eligible to attack the minor country and each other, but not minor country's the controlling major power (unless at war with it).

4.6.4.2.1: This costs the same in total as a declaration of war on one major power.

4.6.4.2.2: If there are any allies and/or royal marriages involved, then the alliances and/or royal marriages are broken and the requisite points lost for _each_.

4.6.4.2.3: There are no calls to allies for these declarations of war.

4.6.5 MAJOR POWER SUPPORT OF CONTROLLED

MINOR COUNTRIES: The minor power's controlling major power now has the option (if eligible and not restricted-see 4.2.2) of declaring war on none, any, or all of the aggressors.

4.6.5.1: This costs (in political points) the same in total, regardless of the number of declarations of war, as for a declaration of war on one major power ("-3" political points) plus the political points lost for each broken alliance ("-2" political points). No allies can be called for these declarations of war.

4.6.5.2: If the controlling power desires to help the minor country against the major power(s) attacking it, it has to declare war on or already be at war with the other major power(s) before its forces can take part in any combat with that other major power. If it is not at war with at least one of the attacking major powers, the con-trolling major power may not garrison or control any cities of the minor country other than with that minor country's factors-the minor country must be run using only the minor country's own forces, although the controlling major power may pay for depots and/or supply costs for the minor country.

4.6.5.3: The controlling major power's corps are ignored in any combat involving that minor country's forces unless against a force which consists of factors of one or more countries with which it is at war (see 6.3.1 and 7.3.8)

4.6.6 LAPSE OF WAR WITH MINOR COUNTRIES: If, during any Peace Step prior to the conquest of a minor country, any invading major power has no corps within that minor country, then that major power is considered to be no longer at war with the minor country and must be at war with the major power controlling it before he can attack it again. Any garrisons, cossacks and/or freikorps are repatriated as per 4.4.6.2. NOTE: For multi-districtminor countries (see 10.4), this applies if a secondary district has been conquered and there are no invading major power corps within the rest of that minor country.

[ 4.7 ] THE BREAKING ALLIANCES STEP: A major power may break any standing alliances, even if made this Turn, paying the political points cost of "2" for breaking an alliance. This is not a declaration of war.

[ 4.8 ] THE FREE STATE DECLARATION STEP: Major powers can declare that any of their conquered minor countries that can have corps are now minor free states. Replace the conquered control flag with a free state control flag in that country. Its fleet if any, is set up at its current strength and its corps, fleets, land, and naval factors may be purchased begining in the next Economic Phase (see 8.2 and 8.5). Once a major power has declared a minor country to be a free state, it may not be later "undeclared" (ie., switched back to being a conquered minor country by that major power).

[ 4.9 ] THE DECLARATION OF COMBINED MOVEMENT STEP: Allies may declare that their Naval and Land Phases will be combined for the remainder of the Turn, with movement of all their forces being conducted in the order of the ally moving last in each phase. This enables allies to move and attack together (see 6.1.2 and 7.1.2). If desired, write down combined movement declarations and reveal them simultaneously.

5.0 THE REINFORCEMENT PHASE

Reinforcements are those counters and strength factors including leaders due to enter the game in the current month. All operations discussed in this section may be performed only during this phase, unless stated otherwise.

[ 5.1 ] * THE NAVAL REINFORCEMENT STEP: In this step, all players may place on the board those naval reinforcements due this Turn. This step is performed in the order; Spain, France, Prussia, Austria, Turkey, Russia, Great Britain.

5.1.1 PLACING EMPTY FLEET COUNTERS: Purchased (see 8.5.4) empty fleet counters (called "fleets") may be placed in any friendly-controlled home nation port or with any existing fleet counter but must have at least one ship strength factor (called "ships") immediately placed in (see 5.1.2) or transferred (see 5.1.3) to them.

5.1.2 PLACING SHIPS: All ships due this Turn (see 8.5.3) may be placed in any of their fleets (including fleets just placed by 5. 1. 1) in a friendly controlled home nation port or conquered minor country port, whether blockaded or not, but not so as to exceed the ship capacity of any fleet. Ships due this Turn can be postponed until any later Turn or Turns (keep a written record of all postponed ships). Minor free state ships are added similarly but only in ports of that minor free state.

5.1.3 TRANSFER OF SHIPS: During a Naval Reinforcement Step, a major power may also transfer ships between fleets occupying the same sea area, blockade box or port. Fleets of different nationalities (including different minor countries or of a major power and any minor country) may not transfer ships. If all ships are transferred from a fleet, the fleet counter is removed from the map at no cost in political points (see 5.1.4. 1).

5.1.4 REMOVING FLEETS AND SHIPS (SCUTTLING)

A player may remove any of his fleet counters (permanently eliminating all untransferred ships, if any, that they contain). Scuttling can also occur under conditions covered in 6.2.6.

5.1.4.1: Each fleet "scuttled" that contains one or more ships causes the loss of "-1" political point (record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card). Removing a fleet that contains no ships costs no political points.

5.1.4.2: Minor country fleets and major power UMP (see 14.3) fleets may never be scuttled during this step.

5.1.4.3: A fleet counter must be repurchased during the Money and Manpower Expenditure Step of an Economic Phase (see 8.5.4) to be placed back on the map.

[ 5.2 ] THE ARMY REINFORCEMENT STEP: In this step, all players may place on the board those army reinforcements due this Turn. Army factors of artillery, regular cavalry, guard infantry (called "guard"), regular infantry and militia infantry (called "militia") factors (feudal infantry, feudal cavalry, insurrection corps militia, insurrection corps cavalry, cossack, freikorps and guerilla factors are also army factors but they are not placed on the map-board during this step unless part of a prisoner exchange-see 4.4.6. 1) due this Turn must be added as reinforcements. Their placement may not be delayed. Army factors that cannot be placed are lost. This step is performed in the order; Spain, Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Turkey, Russia, France.

5.2.1 CORPS COUNTER REINFORCEMENTS:

5.2.1.1 SCENARIO CORPS PLACEMENT: The scenarios specifically provide for the placement of new corps counters. If placement is not possible, due to enemy control of or the presence of enemy corps in the placement area, the corps counters (and all army factors they hold) are lost.

5.2.1.2 * CAMPAIGN CORPS PLACEMENT: Purchased empty corps counters may be placed in an unbesieged home nation city (or minor free state city for corps of that minor free state) or with any existing, unbesieged friendly corps. A factor must be immediately placed in (see 5.2.2.2) or transferred (see 5.2.3) to such a corps.

5.2.2 PLACING ARMY FACTORS: If placement of any army factor reinforcements is not possible, due to corps limits or garrison capacities or enemy siege and/or control of cities, these reinforcements are lost.

5.2.2.1 SCENARIO ARMY FACTOR PLACEMENT: The scenarios specifically provide for the placement of all reinforcement forces. Army factors specified to be placed in an area may be added to corps or as garrisons in that area. For the scenarios, eligible corps are those that are unbesieged and which have the capacity to hold the factors.

5.2.2.2 CAMPAIGN ARMY FACTOR PLACEMENT:

5.2.2.2.1 Adding to Corps Inside Home Nations: Factors may be added to any unbesieged corps of the same nationality which has the capacity and is inside its home nation (this excludes ceded provinces). Minor free state factors can be added in this way, but inside that minor free state's borders. NOTE: Feudal corps must be in their home province which currently contains no unbesieged enemy corps (see 10.1.3) or off-map and insurrection corps must be in an Austrian-controlled border province which currently contains no unbesieged enemy corps (see 10. 1.4) or off-map-during an Army Reinforcement Step feudal and insurrection corps will only get reinforcements from prisoner exchanges (normally they get new factors during December Levy Steps-see 8.10, 10.1.3.1 and 10.1.4.3).

5.2.2.2.2 Adding Factors to Garrisons: Regular infantry (guard or regular cavalry factors may be 'Converted to infantry factors in order to be placed in garrison-see 7.3.3.2) or militia factors may be added as garrisons in unbesieged friendly-controlled cities in the home nation. Minor free state infantry factors can be added in this way but only inside that minor free state's borders.

5.2.2.2.3 Adding Factors to Corps in Supply: Any army factor can be added to an unbesieged corps of the same nationally which is not up to full strength (for the type of factor) and which is on or adjacent to a friendly depot that is a supply source or part of a valid supply chain (see 7.2.3). Another major power's depot or supply chain may not be used for this purpose.

5.2.2.2.3.1: For regular infantry, regular cavalry, artillery or guard infantry factors, this depot must be part of a valid supply chain of six or less depots to that point, which starts at a supply source in the home nation.

5.2.2.2.3.2: For militia factors, the valid supply chain can only be at most three depots long to that point.

5.2.2.2.3.3: Minor free states may receive their factors in the same way, but must trace a supply line (of their controlling major power) back to a supply source in their minor country.

5.2.2.2.3.4: Supply lines for reinforcements may be also be traced in whole or in part via sea supply (see 7.4.3) but not via invasion supply (see 7.4.4)

5.2.3 TRANSFER OF ARMY FACTORS: During an Army Reinforcement Step unbesieged corps in the same area may exchange factors as desired, capacity permitting. Corps of different nationalities (including different minors or a major power and a minor country) may not exchange factors. This is the only time during a Turn that army factors may be exchanged except to detach and absorb garrison factors (see 7.3.3). Army factors may also be exchanged with garrisons in the same area during this step, the same as in 7.3.3 and, if all factors are detached from a corps, the corps counter is removed (see 5.2.4). EXCEPTIONS: Feudal, insurrection and artillery factors may not be exchanged.

5.2.4 REMOVING CORPS AND ARMY FACTORS (DEMOBILIZING): At this time army factors forming all or any part of a garrison of a city or depot and/or corps counters (and any army factors they may hold) may be removed from the board. These factors are lost, but there is no political point penalty.

5.2.4.1: In scenarios a corps counter may be brought back on the map when a corps counter is designated as a reinforcement.

5.2.4.2 *: In campaign games, a corps counter that has been removed from the map must be purchased during a later Money and Manpower Expenditure Step of an Economic Phase (see 8.5.4) to be returned to the map.

5.2.5 SCENARIO MONEY: Money received in scenarios arrives during the Army Reinforcement Step (money arrives during the Economic Phase of campaign games). Money is in the form of money points, denoted by a "$" for convenience.

[ 5.3 ] LEADER RETIREMENT AND REINFORCEMENT:

Leaders may be retired from the map during their appropriate Reinforcement Step or if all their corps are eliminated by foraging (see 7.4.1.3.3) or by failure to disembark (see 6.2.5.2). Leaders may not be retired if in a besieged city (a besieged port city must also be blockaded to prevent a leader's retirement). Retired leaders are returned (along with newly introduced leaders) as reinforcements on any later Army Reinforcement Step (Naval Reinforcement Step for the NELSON leader). Leader reinforcements may be placed with any corps (fleets for NELSON) controlled by their major power.

6.0 THE NAVAL PHASE

[ 6.1 ] THE NAVAL PHASE SEQUENCE: At the beginning of this phase, Great Britain announces when in the following sequence he will be moving. The other major powers move in this order:
Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, France, Spain.

6.1.1 MINOR FREE STATE SEQUENCE: All naval forces of minor free states move with their controlling major power.

6.1.2 COMBINED MOVE SEQUENCE: In order for a major power to move in the sequence of another major power, those major

powers must be allies and must have announced combined movement during the Declaration of Combined Movement Step of the Political Phase. Combined major power movement is conducted in the sequence of the ally who would have moved last in the phase.

6.1.3 NAVAL PHASE STEPS: Each major power sequence of the Naval Phase is divided into Naval Movement and Naval Combat Steps. Each player completes both steps during his major power sequence before the next player commences his major power sequence. The player taking his sequence and his counters are described as "phasing" during that time and all other players and their counters are called "non-phasing".

6.2 1 THE NAVAL MOVEMENT STEPS: Major power players may move any o r all of their fleets up to the limit of their movement allowances during their sequence of a Naval Phase. be combined into one "stack".

6.2.1 GENERAL NAVAL MOVEMENT RULES: Each fleet has a maximum movement allowance of "7" movement points. Phasing fleets may expend from "O" to "7" movement points each during their sequence. Movement points may not be accumulated from Turn to Turn nor may they be transferred among fleets.

6.2.1.1 SEA MOVEMENT COSTS: Each sea area entered costs one movement point.

6.2.1.2 PORT/BLOCKADE BOX MOVEMENT: It costs one point to move into a port from any of the sea areas touching its blockade box and vice-versa. It costs one movement point to enter a blockade box from an adjacent sea area or vice-versa. It costs no movement points to move between a port and its blockade box or vice-versa and all fleets entering or exiting ports are considered to do so by passing through the port's blockade box. To signify that a fleet is in port, it is placed on the coastline of the associated land area. A fleet(s) may enter a port controlled by another major power or neutral minor country only to attack a fleet(s) there or with the controlling major power's permission, even if the port city has no garrison. In no other cases may a fleet be located in a land area.

6.2.1.3 DARDANELLES MOVEMENT: A fleet may not enter the Dardanelles sea area unless that major power controls an unbesieged Constantinople, besieges Constantinople (see 10.7) or has access (see 10.3) from the major power controlling Constantinople.

6.2.1.4 ICE LINE RESTRICTIONS: A fleet may not exit or enter a sea area north of the ice line during any winter month (see 9. 1). If already in a sea area north of the ice line, it must remain these until winter ends and no naval combats can be fought.

6.2.2 NAVAL MOVEMENT PROCEDURE: A major power's fleets occupying the same port, blockade box or sea area must always be combined into one "stack". Major powers that are in the same port, blockade box or sea area that have announced combined movement are treated as one stack.

6.2.2.1: A player may pick up any or all of the fleets in a stack and begin moving them as one stack.

6.2.2.2: Fleets may be added to this stack by moving it to the port, blockade box or sea area containing the fleet(s) desired to be added.

6.2.2.3: Fleets may be dropped off in any port, blockade box or sea area through which the stack passes.

6.2.2.4: Once a stack ends its movement, it may not be moved again this player sequence (EXCEPTIONS: for interceptions, for retreat or pursuit following naval combat or to leave an enemy-controlled port-see 6.2.6).

6.2.2.5: So long as no fleet moves twice nor exceeds its movement allowance, the player may continue to repeat this process until all desired fleets have been moved.

6.2.3 NAVAL INTERCEPTIONS: Fleets may move through areas containing other fleets (even enemy fleets) with no restriction on movement, except that they may be interrupted by interception. In that case an interception combat is fought immediately and if, and only if, the phasing major power's fleets win the interception naval combat may they continue movement (without any movement penalty). Interceptions may not be attempted on stacks that are retreating or pursuing (see 6.3.5).

6.2.3.1 INTERCEPTION PROCEDURE: When a phasing stack enters a sea area occupied by or adjacent to one or more enemy stacks, those enemy stacks may attempt to intercept the moving stack. An "enemy stack" is any stack containing fleets at war with any fleet or fleets in the phasing stack and/or at war with any corps that the phasing stack may be transporting.

6.2.3.1.1 Sequence of Interception Attempts: If more than one eligible major power wishes to attempt an interception, they must make their attempts in the major power sequence decided for move- ment in 6. 1. Once one major power succeeds, no other major power may attempt an interception of that same phasing stack in that same area. Stacks that made or attempted earlier interceptions may be used again for later interceptions of differemt phasing stacks in the same area or of the same phasing stack in a different area. Major powers who have declared combined movement count as one major power for the purposes of interception, making their interception attempts in the sequence position of the major power going later in the sequence.

6.2.3.1 2 Who May Intercept: Only properly placed fleets in the appropriate circumstances may attempt to intercept.

6.2.3.1.2.1: A fleet entering a port (which must always be done through a blockade box-see 6.2.1.2) may not be intercepted unless the phasing player announces that he wishes to be intercepted. This is an exception to the rule of automatic interception in a blockade box (see 6.2.3.1.2.3).

6.2.3.1.2.2: A fleet in a port may only intercept enemy fleets entering the adjacent sea area(s) and then only if not blockaded.

6.2.3.1.2.3: A fleet entering a blockade box may only be intercepted by enemy fleets which currently occupy that blockade box and a fleet in a blockade box may only intercept enemy fleets which enter that blockade box (and the interception is automatic if attempted)

6.2.3.1.2.4. A fleet adjacent to the Dardenelles sea area would not be able to intercept fleets entering that area unless it was permitted under the restrictions of 6.2.1.3.

6.2.3.1.2.5: If a major power attempting an interception has several different stacks available for an interception, one stack only may be selected and announced for that interception attempt. If that stack fails to intercept, no other stack of the major power may attempt that same interception.

6.2.3.2 RESOLUTION OF NAVAL INTERCEPTIONS:

6.2.3.2.1 Blockade Box Interceptions: When a phasing stack enters a blockade box and is automatically intercepted by an enemy fleet(s) there, it must win the immediate interception naval combat before it can continue moving.

6.2.3.2.1.1: If more than one enemy major power's fleets occupy that blockade box, the entering fleet(s) is intercepted by the major power higher in the sequence specified in 6.1.

6.2.3.2.1.2: If all enemy fleets choose not to intercept, the phasing fleet(s) may continue moving (the same as if the combat had been won)

6.2.3.2.1.3: Since a phasing stack must enter a port to add fleets in that port to the stack and fleets entering a port may avoid blockade box interception (see 6.2.3.1.2.1), a phasing player wishing to add a fleet or fleets in a port to a stack has a choice of how to handle a blockade box interception situation. The phasing player may announce a wish to be intercepted in the blockade box and fight an interception combat before entering the port to add the fleets there or may avoid interception in the blockade box and then (if movement isn't concluded in the port) move the combined stack from the port to the blockade box for an automatic (if interception is desired by the enemy) naval combat then.

6.2.3.2.2 Sea Area Interceptions: Except for interceptions in a blockade box, a die must be rolled for each stack attempting to intercept.

6.2.3.2.3 Nelson Interception Modifier: If the NELSON leader is with the intercepting stack, one is subtracted from the die roll.

6.2.3.2.4 Intercepting Fleet Movement: If successful, the intercepting stack must be moved to the area containing the phasing stack that was intercepted, if not already there.

6.2.3.3 RESULT OF INTERCEPTIONS: If the interception is successful, a naval combat is fought immediately, (i.e., during the Naval Movement Step) using the naval combat rules (see 6.3). No evasion by the phasing major power is possible from an interception.

6.2.3.4 OUTCOME OF INTERCEPTION COMBAT:

6.2.3.4.1 Intercepting Side Victory: If the intercepting major power's stack wins the naval combat, the phasing major power must retreat its stack in accordance with the naval combat rules (see 6.3.5), with that stack of fleets then ceasing movement after the retreat move. In this case, the intercepting fleets may continue to remain in the area for (possibly) intercepting other phasing stacks or some or all of the victorious fleets may pursue the defeated stack (see 6.3.5).

6.2.3.4.2 Phasing Side Victory: If the phasing stack wins the naval combat, the intercepting stack must retreat in accordance with the naval combat rules (see 6.3.5), and may not attempt more interceptions during this major power's movement sequence. Some or all of the phasing stack may pursue the defeated stack and/or continue movement with whatever movement points the stack's fleets retain. Of course, other fleets can attempt to intercept the phasing fleets in every other sea area that is entered by repeating the interception procedure.

6.2.4 INITIATION OF NAVAL COMBAT: If a phasing stack end its movement in a sea area containing an enemy stack, it may initiate an attack against those enemy fleets in the Naval Combat Step (see 6.3). If a phasing stack ends movement in a port or blockade box occupied by any enemy fleet(s), an attack must be initiated on the enemy fleet(s). It a number of attacks are initiated in different areas, the attacker decides the order in which the naval combats are to be resolved.

6.2.5 NAVAL TRANSPORTATION OF ARMY CORPS AND LEADERS: Corps and any accompanying leaders may be transported in the Naval Phase at the rate of one corps per fleet. Fleets may transport the corps of other major powers only if the two major powers have declared combined movement during the Declaration of Combined Movement Step of the Turn's Political Phase.Guerillas, cossacks, freikorps, insurrection corps leaders not accompanying corps, and garrison factors may not be moved by sea.

6.2.5.1 TRANSPORTATION MOVEMENT PROCEDURE: The corps and the fleet must both begin in the same friendly controlled (it may be besieged) _port_. They move together until in the sea area or blockade box adjacent to the land area in which the corps is to land or until reaching a port. Fleets and the corps they transport may enter other ports only if controlled or with access.

6.2.5.2 FAILURE TO DISEMBARK: If a corps does not disembark during the Land Phase it is destroyed. If all corps are destroyed in this manner, any leaders with the corps are retired from the map (see 5.3).

6.2.5.3 ELIMINATION OF TRANSPORTING FLEETS: If fleet counters are eliminated, corps they were transporting in excess of the number of fleets are lost. The corps so lost may not transfer factors before being eliminated. If all corps are destroyed in this manner, any leaders with the corps are captured.

6.2.6 ENEMY CONTROL OF A FLEET'S PORT: If a port in which a fleet is located becomes enemy-controlled, the fleet must be moved immediately (this will not happen during a Naval Phase, but during other phases and steps, including during a Declarations of War Step) into an adjacent sea area or the port's blockade box. Harbour defences are never used against fleets leaving a port.

6.2.6.1: If the port is blockaded by an enemy fleet at the time, the fleet in the port is scuttled instead and all its fleets and ships are lost. Alternately, if desired, the blockaded fleet(s) may choose to fight the blockading fleet(s), with the wind gauge automatically going to the blockading fleet(s). The blockaded fleet(s) remains in the blockade box if it wins the combat. The blockaded fleet(s) must be scuttled if it loses the naval combat.

6.2.6.2: If NELSON is with a scuttled fleet in this situation he is captured by the major power controlling the port.

6.2.6.3: Unlike rule 5.1.4.2, minor country and UMP major power fleets can be scuttled under these conditions.

6.2.6.4: Each fleet scuttled causes the loss of 1 political point (record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card).

6.2.6.5: A scuttled fleet counter must be repurchased during an Economic Phase (see 8.5.4) to be brought back into the game.

6.2.7 BLOCKADE OF PORTS: A stack may only enter a blockade box if it is at war with the major power controlling the port or if the box or port contains an enemy fleet or enemy corps with neutral fleets that have announced combined movement (winch makes transporting the corps possible-see 6.2.5).

6.2.7.1: If a major power begins its naval sequence with a stack occupying a blockade box and it is not at war with the major power controlling the port, not at war with any fleet(s) occupying that port and/or not at war with any corps in the port area that can be transported, then the stack must leave that blockade box during its sequence of the Naval Phase.

6.2.7.2: If a blockade box is occupied, a stack may enter or leave the port without interception if not at war with any of the major powers with fleets in the blockade box. However, a fleet not at war with any major power's fleet in the blockade box may be intercepted if transporting a corps of a major power that is at war with the blockading stack (or portion of the stack-see 6.3.1.2).

6.2.7.3: Fleets of a major power that are at war with blockading fleets may enter or leave that port but may be intercepted by the blockading enemy major power's stack (see 6.2.3.2.1). Stacks entering a blockade box that win any interception combats, may then proceed into the port or out to sea (see 6.2.3).

[ 6.3 ] THE NAVAL COMBAT STEP: These same rules apply to naval combats caused by interception (see 6.2.3) or by initiation (see 6.2.4).

6.3.1 WHO MAY FIGHT: If enemy fleets of more than one major power occupy a sea area, blockade box or port, only one major powers's stack can be attacked (for this purpose, all major powers who have declared combined movement and are at war with the attacker are considered to be one major power). Other major powers in the sea area, blockade box or port can be ignored (even with combined movement declared, if not at war with the attacker).

6.3.1.1 NAVAL ATTACKERIDEFENDER DETERMINATION: If there is more than one enemy major power present, the "attacker" decides which will be the "defender". The attacker is the phasing side if 6.2.4 applies or the non-phasing intercepting side if the combat is caused by an interception (see 6.2.3). The defender (at the attacker's option) comprises any one defender's stack that is present.

6.3.1.2 WHO IS AN ENEMY: A stack may only attack another stack if at war with the major power owning that stack, if at war with a major power owning corps being (or that could be) transported by fleets of that stack, or if at war with one or more of the fleets involved in combined movement. In the latter two cases, the attacker's stack need not be at war with the major power owning the transporting fleets, and, if not, the attacker has the option to either:

6.3.1.2.1: Attack without a declaration of war (no political point loss for a declaration of war) although political points are still normally gained or lost for winning or losing the battle.

6.3.1.2.2: Or, immediately declare war (even if operating under an enforced peace period, which can be ignored in this case, although the other restrictions in 4.2.2 still apply) and lose the requisite political points (see 4.2.1.1) for each separate declaration of war. No allies may be called with these declarations of war.

6.3.1.3 ENEMY IN A PORT: A stack may attack an enemy stack or a neutral stack that could carry enemy corps (they are in the same land area and have announced combined movement) in a port city controlled by a neutral major power.

6.3.1.3.1: If the attacking stack is given access by the port's controlling major power, the harbour defences are not used.

6.3.1.3.2: If denied access, the phasing stack can still attack, but the port's controlling player may use the harbour defences. No declaration of war is required in this case, but 6.3.1.2.1 or 6.3.1.2.2 can be applied.

6.3.1.3.3: EXCEPTION: Even if the attacker has unconditional access (see peace term C.5 and 10.3) and/or an earlier voluntary access agreement with the neutral major power that garrisons the port to enter the port, if the fleet(s) being attacked belong to the neutral major power holding the port, the harbour defences are used (see 10.3.2 to determine who holds a city).

6.3.2 POSSIBLE EVASIONS: The major power upon which an attack is declared may attempt to evade unless the attack is caused by an interception or is in a port or blockade box. If the evasion is unsuccessful a combat will be fought. If the evasion is successful, the phasing player may not then attempt to attack any other stack remaining in the area.

6.3.2.1: Every time the phasing major power intends to attack a stack, the non-phasing stack may attempt naval evasion. This is done by the non-phasing stack's controlling player rolling a die. if a "1" or "2" is rolled, the non-phasing stack evades combat and is retreated according to the naval retreat after combat rules (see 6.3.5.1-treat the evading side as if it were the loser of a combat and the attacking side as if it were the winner).

6.3.2.2: There are no political points for a successful evasion.

6.3.3 NAVAL COMBAT PROCEDURE:

6.3.3.1 DETERMINING THE WIND GAUGE: If combat is to take place, the "wind gauge" must be determined. A stack attacking in a port combat, and blockading fleets combatting fleets exiting that blockade box's port automatically have the wind gauge. In all other cases each side rolls one die, adding one to the result if that side contains a British fleet and adding a further one if NELSON is present. Notwithstanding these modifiers, a "6" is the maximum modified result. If the net rolls are equal, there is no wind gauge and combat is resolved simultaneously. In any other case, the higher die roll gains the wind gauge and conducts its attack first, removing losses inflicted on the opponent before the opponent replies.

6.3.3.2 NAVAL COMBAT RESOLUTION: Each side rolls one die, adding one if a British fleet is present on that side and sub-tracting one if a Prussian and/or an Austrian fleet is present on that side (these modifiers may cancel each other if both are present in the same stack). The roll is compared to the NAVAL COMBAT TABLE on the Game Card and the result is the percentage (see the CASUALTY PERCENTAGE TABLE on the Game Card) of that side's number of ships, which number of ships the other side must remove as losses.

6.3.3.3 NAVAL COMBAT IN A PORT: If combat occurs in a port, the "harbor defences" (see the map for harbour defence values printed in each port's blockade box) attack the phasing major power's fleet(s) first, using the NAVAL COMBAT TABLE on the Game Card with an umnodified die roll. Treat the harbor defence value number the same as if it were that many ships for the combat. There must be a garrison in the port city that is at war with or denied access to (see 6.3.1.3 for these situations) an entering stack in order to use the harbor defences. The phasing major power's surviving ships then attack the enemy fleet(s) in that port. Finally, any surviving defending ships make their combat die roll.

6.3.3.4 NAVAL COMBAT EXAMPLE:

Great Britain and France are at war. It is Great Britain's Naval Phase. Great Britain moves NELSON and 3 fleets with 60 ships total into a sea area containing 3 French fleets with 31 total ships. First, wind gauge is determined: Great Britain rolls a "2", which becomes a "4" after adding modifiers for NELSON and British fleets. France rolls an unmodified "5". France wins the wind gauge and fights first. France rolls a "5" on the Naval Combat Table. This means 20 % of the number of French ships is inflicted as ship losses on the British. 20% of 31 is 6 ships (on the CASUALIY PERCENTAGE TABLE, crossgrid the "20%" line with "20" factors and then with "1" factors and add together to get "6"). Great Britain rolls a "2", which becomes a "3" after adding the modifier for British fleets. This results in 8 French ship losses (60 British ships minus 6 ships lost = 54 ships or "20" plus "20" plus "14" factors on the "15%" line of the CASUALTYPERCENTAGE TABLE = "8") being suffered by the French.

6.3.4. NAVAL VICTORY AND POLITICAL POINTS:

6.3.4.1 DETERMINING VICTORY: A side that does not lose all of its ships and also loses less ships than the other side wins a naval combat and the other side loses it. If both sides have surviving ships and losses were equal, the side that attacked loses the naval combat and the other side wins it. If a side loses all of its ships but loses less ships than the other side a naval combat is a draw (this can happen in port combats).

6.3.4.2 POLITICAL POINT CHANGES: The victor(s) of a naval combat gains political points and the loser loses them (draws have no political point effects). One political point is gained or lost for each fleet of the defeated major power(s) used in that combat, up to a maximum of +/-3 political points.

6.3.4.2.1: If the victor was commanded by the NELSON leader, they get "+1" extra political point.

6.3.4.2.2: If the loser was commanded by the NELSON leader, they lose "-1" extra political point.

6.3.5 NAVAL RETREAT AND PURSUIT: The survivors of one side in a naval combat must retreat. Retreat moves are always made before pursuit moves and the retreat and pursuit moves of one naval combat must be made before the next naval combat is resolved.

6.3.5.1 SEA AREA RETREATS AND PURSUITS: The naval combat loser retreats all fleets that were in the combat to the one nearest unblockaded friendly (including an ally's port, with access permission and if the loser wishes to use it) port within seven movement points (losing player's choice if more than one possible port is equally close). Some, none or all of the victorious fleet(s) may pursue to follow the losing fleets and blockade that port.

6.3.5.1.1: If no eligible port is available, or at the loser's option, the loser retreats to any one adjacent sea area of the victor's choice (a sea area into which movement is not possible may not be selected). Retreating or pursuing fleets may not be intercepted. In this case there is no pursuit and the victor remains in the area where the combat occurred.

6.3.5.1.2: A fleet may neither retreat nor pursue into or through a sea area north of the ice line during winter or into or through the Dardenelles sea area without the permission of the major power controlling Constantinople (if any).

6.3.5.2 PORT RETREATS: If the naval combat takes place in a port, the attacking fleets (win or lose) must always retreat to the port's blockade box, and the defending fleets remain in the port (no pursuit).

6.3.5.3 BLOCKADE BOX RETREATS AND PURSUITS: If the naval combat takes place in a blockade box the loser must retreat to that port, if and only if, the combat resulted from the movement of the loser's stack from that port, and in any other case must retreat in accordance with sea area retreat rules (see 6.3.5.1). Pursuit is the same as a sea area pursuit. EXCEPTION: Since movement between a blockade box and its port is free (see 6.2.1.2), the victor (even if the phasing side with all movement expended) in a blockade box naval combat may be, if the port is friendly or with access permission, moved into the port following the naval combat.

6.3.5.4 NAVAL RETREAT AND PURSUIT EXAMPLE:

Continuing the example from 6.3.3.4; as the French Player lost (8 ships lost to 6) he must retreat to the nearest unblockaded friendly- controlled port within seven movement points or be moved by the British to an adjacent sea area. Great Britain gains "4" political points for the win (including "+1" extra for NELSON), and France loses "3" political points because the loser had 3 fleets. France decides to retreat to a nearby home nation port and Great Britain decides to follow up and blockade that port.

6.3.6 CONSOLIDATION OF LOSSES..- After ships lost in combat are removed, excess fleet counters (those without ships) are removed from the map. No political points are lost for removing these empty fleets. If during naval combat or as a result of transfer, a fleet is left without ships, it is removed from the map and must be repurchased during an Economic Phase (see 8.5.4) to be brought back into the game. If NELSON is with a stack in which all ships and fleets are eliminated by naval combat, NELSON becomes a prisoner of the other side in the naval combat.

7.0 THE LAND PHASE

7.1 THE LAND PHASE SEQUENCE: At the beginning of this phase France announces when in the following sequence he will be moving. The other major powers move in this order: Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain.

7.1.1 MINOR FREE STATE SEQUENCE: All land forces of minor free states move in the sequence of their controlling major power.

7.1.2 COMBINED MOVE SEQUENCE: In order for a major power to move in the sequence of another major power, those major powers must be allies and must have announced combined movement during the Political Phase. Combined movement is conducted in the sequence of the ally who would have moved last in the phase.

7.1.3 LAND PHASE STEPS: Each major power sequence of the Land Phase is divided into Depot Creation/Removal, Land Movement, Supply, Land Combat and Guerrilla Steps. Each player completes all these steps during his major power sequence before the next player commences his major power sequence. The player his sequence and his counters are described as "phasing" during that time and all other players and their counters are called "non-phasing". After all major powers have completed their sequences, the Conquest Step is simultaneously resolved.

7.2 THE DEPOT CREATION/REMOVAL STEP: Major powers may remove any of their depots, destroying any garrisons on a removed depot unless there is an unbesieged friendly controlled or vacant city in that same area to which they can be transferred. Major powers may then purchase and place new depots, up to counter mix limits on the map at any one time, at the cost of one money point each. The same depots may be removed, then placed, etc. any number of times during the course of a game as long as one money point is paid every time one is placed and the countermix limits are not exceeded-the same depot counter may be removed and then placed elsewhere (at a one money point cost) during the same Depot Creation/Removal Step. Free state forces use the depots of their controlling major power. Depots may not be placed in areas containing unbesieged enemy corps, guerrillas, freikorps or cossacks (unless an unbesieged corps of the major power placing the depot is also in that area) or in an area which already contains a depot (there is a limit of one depot per area-EXCEPTION: see 7.2.2). Depots may be placed only in the following areas:

7.2.1 DEPOT IN A FRIENDLY CITY AREA: A new depot may be placed in an area containing a friendly controlled unbesieged city, in that major power's territory.

7.2.2 * DEPOT INSIDE A FRIENDLY PORT OR IN A PORT AREA: Even if not itself a supply source or part of an overland supply chain, a new depot may be placed in an area containing an unblockaded friendly controlled port, provided there exists a friendly unblockaded sea supply source (see 7.4.3) to the port.

7.2.2.1: If such a port is besieged, then the depot is placed in the port city itself. This is the only case where the depot is considered to be in a city rather than in the surrounding area.

7.2.2.2: Another, enemy depot could also be placed in the port city's area while a depot is also in the port city itself. This is the only case where two depots may be located in the same area (actually, one in the city and one in the area).

7.2.3 DEPOTS IN SUPPLY CHAINS: A new depot may be placed within two unblocked areas of an already existing (before this Turn) depot that is a supply source or which is part of a valid supply chain.

7.2.3.1 SUPPLY SOURCE DEFINITION: A "supply source" is any unbesieged controlled city area in a major power s home nation or controlled minor country that is unoccuppied by enemy forces and that contains a depot.

7.2.3.2 SUPPLY CHAIN DEFINITION: A "supply chain" is a series of one major power's depots that are placed no more than two areas apart and lead back to a supply source of that major power.

7.2.3.2.1: A "valid" supply chain is one where the intervening areas between any of a supply chain's depots are not blocked by the presence of unbesieged enemy corps, garrisons, guerrillas, cossacks and/or freikorps (EXCEPTION: these enemy forces do not block an area if that area also contains an unbesieged friendly corps or garrison).

7.2.3.2.2: A valid supply chain may only be traced across sea areas via sea supply (see 7.4.3). A valid supply chain may be traced across sea crossing arrows unless the surrounding sea area contains an enemy fleet(s).

7.2.3.2.3: Any portion of a supply chain that is not valid cannot be used for regular supply (see 7.4.2), although the invalid depots do not have to be removed.

7.2.3.3 SUPPLY CHAIN RESTRICTIONS:

7.2.3.3.1: New depots as part of a supply chain may not be placed in a minor neutral unless the major power is at war with the neutral and may only be placed in the territory of another major power if given access permission by, at war with, or having imposed victory condition C.5 (see 4.5.2) on that major power.

7.2.3.3.2: For a major power to place a new depot outside of its own territory, an unbesieged corps of that major power must be in that area.

7.2.3.3.3: Depots from different major powers, even if allied, may not combine to form one supply chain (including sea supply or invasion supply).

7.2.4 * DEPOTS ON FLEETS: Depots may be placed on fleets,' for the provision of invasion supply (see 7.4.4).

7.3 THE LAND MOVEMENT STEP: Major powers may move any or all of their corps, cossacks, freikorps or guerrillas during their sequence. Free state corps are moved at the same time by the controlling major power and are not limited to movement within their minor free state. Movement may be restricted through other major powers' territory (see 10.3). Movement allowances may not be transferred from unit to unit nor may they be accumulated from Turn to Turn.

7.3.1 GENERAL LAND MOVEMENT RULES: Each land counter has a "movement allowance" consisting of a number of "movement points" that can be expended to enter new areas on the map.

7.3.1.1 MOVEMENT ALLOWANCES: With corps bearing a cavalry symbol (including Austrian light infantry), Austrian and Prussian freikorps and Russian cossacks the movement allowance is "5". For French corps (including French artillery) and French controlled minor free state corps having an infantry symbol and having their "3" movement allowance number in parenthesis the allowance is "4". All other corps have an allowance of "3". Spanish guerrillas have a movement allowance of one area (regardless of terrain).

7.3.1.2 FORCE MARCHING: Corps may increase their movement allowance by one movement point by "force marching". Cossacks, freikorps, guerillas, cavalry corps and disembarking corps may not be force marched.

7.3.1.3 LAND MOVEMENT COSTS: Each map area generally expends one movement point from a counter's movement allowance to enter, although this varies in some areas, as follows:

7.3.1.3.1 Marsh or Mountain: Areas containing a marsh or a mountain cost 2 movement points to enter.

7.3.1.3.2 Crossing Rivers: It costs an extra movement point to enter an area across a river, if that area contains an unbesieged enemy corps. There is no extra cost to move across a river if there is no unbesieged enemy corps counter(s) in the area.

7.3.1.3.3 Sea Crossing Arrow Movement: It always costs an extra movement point to use a crossing arrow. Corps, freikorps and/or cossacks may not use a crossing arrow if an enemy fleet occupies the surrounding sea area.

7.3.1.3.4 Cumulative Costs: These costs are all cumulative. For example, movement across a river into a mountain area containing an enemy corps costs one movement point to cross the river, plus two more movement points since it is a mountain area, for a total of three movement points of the counter's movement allowance expended.

7.3.1.4 FORAGING WHILE MOVING: Although the rules are covered in the Supply Step, foraging (see 7.4.1) is performed while corps are being moved.

7.3.2 LAND MOVEMENT PROCEDURES: Each counter is moved individually.

7.3.2.1: A corps must cease movement when it consumes its movement allowance or when it enters an area containing an unbesieged enemy corps (not if the area contains only cossacks, freikorps, guerrillas and/or garrisons).

7.3.2.2: Cossacks and/or freikorps are not required to cease movement when they enter an area containing enemy forces.

7.3.2.3: No counter may be moved into an area that would cost more movement points than the counter has remaining for use.

7.3.2.4: Movement may be ended earlier-there is no requirement to move any counter nor for any counter to expend its full movement allowance.

7.3.3 MOVING INTO CITIES-DETACHING/ABSORBING FACTORS-GARRISONS: During a major power's Land Movement Step, any non-artillery, non-feudal or non-insurrection corps may detach factors as garrisons at, or absorb army factors from, depots hnd/or unbesieged friendly or vacant cities by reducing or increasing its strength, if the capacity is there. There is no movement point cost for doing this.

7.3.3.1 DETACHING/ABSORBING FACTORS RESTRICTIONS: Regular infantry and/or militia factors may not be detached or absorbed in an area containing enemy corps outside a city.

7.3.3.1.1: Minor free state forces may only detach and absorb their infantry factors to and from cities and/or depots within their own country.

7.3.3.1.2: Detachments cannot empty a corps. All corps must always contain at least one army factor to maintain the corps counter on the map-corps counters may be removed only due to 5.2.3/5.2.4, 7.3.5, 7.4.1 or 7.5.5 and at those times.

7.3.3.2 CONVERTING ARMY FACTORS: Regular cavalry and guard factors detached to serve as garrisons must be converted to regular infantry factors for the remainder of the game; artillery factors may not be detached.

7.3.3.3 GARRISON FACTORS: Garrison factors can be regular infantry and/or militia factors, represented by the placement of garrison/strength counters of the appropriate strength and type on the city or depot concerned. Each major power must use counters of its own color (see 1.2) for garrison purposes outside the major power's borders. The gray garrison/strength counters must be used for minor free states inside their own borders and may be also be used inside a major power's home nation territory to represent that major power's garrisons if insufficient counters of the appropriate color are available. This is why some small grey counters are militia.

7.3.3.3.1: Cossack, freikorps and guerrillas factors (guerrillas may not garrison depots) may also be used to form all or part of a city or depot garrison.

7.3.3.3.2: Corps may form all or part of a city garrison without detaching army factors, so that any types of army factors in such corps could also be a garrison.

7.3.3.4 CITY GARRISON CAPACITIES: A city's maximum garrison capacity is 5 times its supply value (e.g., a city with a supply value of "4"-it has four spires on its map picture-may contain up to 20 army factors). A city may also hold any number of leaders (NOTE: leaders may only be moved into a city with corps counters, although they may remain there-must remain there if the city is besieged-after the corps counters are eliminated).

7.3.3.5 DEPOT GARRISON CAPACITY: A depot's maximum garrison capacity is 10 army factors.

7.3.3.5.1: All army factors/corps used to garrison a depot must be of the same major power as the depot.

7.3.3.5.2: Controlled minor free state factors may be used to garrison any of its major power's depots only within the minor free state's borders.

7.3.3.5.3: A depot in a besieged port city (see 7.2.2) does not add any garrison capacity to the city-the port city/depot combination has the same capacity as just the city alone.

7.3.4 MOVEMENT FROM CITIES: If a phasing major power has corps, cossacks, freikorps and/or guerillas inside a city which is not being besieged, they may be moved directly out of that city into the area surrounding the city and/or continue normal movement into adjacent areas (if permissible). Moving from a city into its area (or vice-versa) expends no movement points.

7.3.5 * LANDING FROM SHIPS-"DISEMIBARKING": Corps being transported on fleets at sea (see 6.2.5) must be "disembarked" into any adjacent land area during their Land Movement Step or be eliminated. Corps being transported on fleets that moved into a port must disembark in the port's area. When disembarking from fleets located in a blockade box, corps must land in the area containing that blockade box's port. Disembarking exhausts a corps, entire movement allowance for all purposes, and counts the same as having crossed a river for purposes of any combat in that area during the disembarking player's sequence (see 7.5.2.7.1). If an area contains a friendly port that is besieged, counters may be considered to be disembarked directly into the port (if there is room) or into the port's area, as the controlling player desires.

7.3.6 MOVING INTO AN ENEMY DEPOT AREA:

7.3.6.1 UNGARRISONED DEPOT AREA: If during movement a corps, cossack, freikorps or guerilla moves into an area containing an ungarrisoned enemy depot, it may elect to destroy the depot. If it does destroy the depot and ends its movement in that area, then having destroyed the depot counts as having successfully foraged for supply (with no loss) for that one corps counter. An alternative to destroying a depot is to convert (remove the enemy depot and replace it with one of the entering power's depots-there is no money cost for this conversion) it to a friendly depot if that would make it a supply source or an extension of a friendly valid supply chain (see 7.2.3).

7.3.6.2 GARRISONED DEPOT AREA: If an enemy depot is garrisoned, the player controlling the garrison factors has the option of immediately destroying the depot before the moving force chooses whether to leave the area (if permissible) or to stay and fight. If the garrison does not elect to destroy the depot and the phasing force chooses to stop its movement and fight, the depot may be captured after land combat (see 7.3.6.1) and destroyed or converted (but not used for supply this major power's sequence-also see 7.5.2.14). If the garrison destroys the depot, the garrison surrenders or all or part (if city cannot hold all-the part not moved to the city will surrender) can be moved to an unbesieged friendly controlled or vacant city in that same area, at the owning player's option.

7.3.7 MOVING INTO COMBAT:

7.3.7.1 ENEMY CORPS OR CITY GARRISON IN AREA: If during movement a corps moves into an area containing enemy corps not in a city, the corps must cease movement and declare an attack. If enemy corps and/or garrison factors are in a city the phasing corps may continue movement or stop movement and besiege (see 7.5.4) or not, as the owning player desires. If he decides to besiege the enemy corps and forages for supply, the foraging die roll is not reduced due to unconsumed movement points (see 7.3.2). if any friendly forces in an area besiege enemy forces then all friendly forces in that area (except depot garrisons) must besiege the enemy forces.

7.3.7.2 ENEMY COSSACK, FREIKORPS OR DEPOT GARRISON IN AREA: If a corps ends its movement in an area containing an only enemy cossacks, freikorps and/or depot garrison factors it must declare an attack. A corps may move through such an area without stopping or declaring an attack.

7.3.8 * DECLARATION OF COMBAT AND COMBINED MOVEMENT: To avoid problems when moving into combat the following step sequence must be followed whenever moving into an area containing two or more forces or when using combined movement (see 4.9).

7.3.8.1 STEP ONE: All allies who are using combined movement, although moving in the same major power sequence, must decide in which order they will move within this sequence. If agreement cannot be reached, let competitive die rolls decide.

7.3.8.2 STEP TWO: The phasing major power (the first ally in the case of combined movement) moves all his forces normally and must declare an attack against all field forces (corps that have not moved into cities or cossacks, freikorps and/or depot garrisons in the last area entered) with which he is at war, in each area that also contains his field forces.

7.3.8.3 STEP THREE: Major powers who have field forces in an area in which a combat has been declared against an ally, may now declare war (if not already at war and if not restricted-see 4.2.2) on the attacker, losing the appropriate political points (see 4.2. 1.1 -record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card) per separate declaration of war. No allies can be called for these declarations of war. These major powers are now classed as the "defenders" and fight the combat as one force.

7.3.8.4 STEP FOUR: All major powers not at war with the attacker (except the attacker and his allies at war with the defender and factors in cities or on depots) must now leave the area, moving to any adjacent area that, if possible, is closer or at least as close to their source of supply as the area they leave.

7.3.8.5 STEP FIVE: Now the second combined movement ally (if there is one) follows the procedures outlined in Steps 2-4 but may not enter an area containing forces of the first ally unless it is an area where no attack has been declared or the second ally is at war with all the defending major powers in that area. This ally now becomes an attacker (joining the first ally in the attack).

7.3.8.6 STEP SIX: Repeat Step 5 until all the combined movement allies have moved. Now every ally of the phasing major power(s) who is in an area where an attack has been declared and is at war with all the defending major powers may stay and participate as an attacker. Otherwise they must leave the area, moving to an adjacent area closer to their sources of supply.

7.3.8.7 STEP SEVEN: This will now leave just two forces in every area where an attack has been declared, the attacking force (the original attacker and his allies) and the defending force (as found in Step 3). Garrison army factors (including those on depots) of a major power that is not involved in the combat may remain in the area but are ignored for combat purposes.

[ 7.4 ] THE SUPPLY STEP: Only corps and besieged forces must be supplied. Leaders and unbesieged cossacks, freikorps, guerillas and garrisons do not need supply.

 

7.4.1 FORAGING: "Foraging" represents living off the country. When a corps ceases movement it may elect (or be forced) to "forage" rather than use depot supply. If it has force marched, or is four or more areas from the nearest depot in a friendly valid supply chain, not adjacent to an invasion supply depot and/or supply source or no money is available for depot supply then it must forage for supply.

7.4.1.1 FORAGING PROCEDURE: A die is rolled for each foraging corps as it completes movement (but after resolving any 7.3.8 procedures that may be caused by its movement). This die roll is modified as in 7.4.1.2, if any modifiers apply. The modified die result is than compared with the forage value of the area with the lowest forage value of all the areas passed through or stopped in, not counting the area in which the corps started (unless the corps did not move and remained in one area), during its Land Movement Step. If the modified die result is equal to or less than this forage value, there is no effect. For each modified die point above the forage value, the corps must lose one army factor.

7.4.1.2 FORAGING MODIFIERS: When the die is rolled for a foraging corps, the following cumulative modifiers may apply:

7.4.1.2.1 Other Corps In The Area: For each other unbesieged corps in the area it currently occupies, whether that major power's or not (including friendly and enemy corps and corps which have, and corps which have not, already moved during this step), "+1" is added to the result of the die, up to a maximum of "+2". NOTE: This does not include corps that leave the area as a result of the 7.3.8 procedures.

7.4.1.2.2 Unused Movement Points: For each movement point the corps did not use, one is subtracted from the die. EXCEPTION: The die is not modified due to unused movement points if the corps is besieging or plans to besiege enemy forces in the area.

7.4.1.2.3 Force Marching: If the corps force marched, "+1" is added to the die roll.

7.4.1.2.4 Winter: If it is winter "+ 2" is added to the die roll unless the corps is not in the "winter zone" (see 9.0).

7.4.1.2.5 In Own Territory: If the corps did not move into an area outside the major power's territory this Turn and is not now in such an area, "1" is subtracted from the die roll.

7.4.1.3 FORAGING LOSSES: The factor or factors removed for foraging losses may be any in the corps of the controlling player's choice, with these restrictions:

7.4.1.3.1: Any factors that were part of the corps during its movement are eligible to be used for forage losses. If possible, forage losses must come out of the factors actually in the corps when movement is completed.

7.4.1.3.2: Corps counters may be removed as a result of forage losses only if all factors that were part of the corps during its movement are lost to foraging. If only one factor remains after foraging losses are removed, that factor must be in the corps and the corps counter must be left on the map. For example, a corps with three regular infantry factors detaches two of these factors into a city in an area passed through and then rolls a loss of two factors while foraging. Since the corps can only be removed if all factors are lost, the two detached factors would have to be the ones lost. If the corps had started with five factors, the two forage losses would come out of the corps (leaving one factor in the corps) and the two detached factors would remain in their city. If the corps had started with four factors, one of the forage losses would have to come out Of the corps (leaving one factor in the corps) and the other loss would have to be one of the detached factors.

7.4.1.3.3: If all corps counters in an area are removed due to foraging losses, any leaders with the removed corps are immediately removed from the map. They may be returned to the map during any later Army Reinforcement Step (see 5.3).

7.4.2 REGULAR (DEPOT) SUPPLY: After the movement and foraging of corps is complete, any corps which did not forage must now pay for supply. Depot supply, while costing money prevents army factors being lost. Paying for depot supply is as follows:

7.4.2.1 PAYING FOR DEPOT SUPPLY: Any corps in a depot area or which can trace an unblocked route to a depot may use depot supply. Besieged port city garrisons (regardless of size) may also use depot supply (see 7.4.3 and 7.4.4). The costs for all corps and separate garrisons are summed and any fraction rounded up, that amount then being deducted from that major power's current monetary total. A major power may not use depot supply for a corps if it doesn't have enough money to pay the cost and such corps must instead forage for supply.

7.4.2.1.1 Corps Depot Supply: A corps in the same area as a depot being part of a valid supply chain costs half a money point to supply. Other corps up to 3 unblocked areas away from a depot pay the number of areas they are away from a depot in a valid supply chain in money points. For example, a corps 3 areas away pays 3 money points to get supply. The route through intervening areas traced from a corps to a depot may not be blocked by forces (same rules as for blocking a supply chain (see 7.2.3.2.1).

7.4.2.1.2 Besieged Port Garrison Depot Supply: Besieged port city garrisons using sea supply through a depot in the port city cost half a money point per garrison to supply. Besieged port city garrisons using invasion supply cost one money point per garrison to supply as they are in an adjacent area.

7.4.2.1.3 Winter Depot Supply Cost Increases: All costs are doubled in winter for corps or garrisons within the winter zone (see 9.0).

7.4.2.2 ALLIED DEPOT SUPPLY: Major powers may have their forces live off the depots and/or supply chains of their allies, but those allies must pay the costs involved. Naturally, permission is required for this.

7.4.3 * SEA SUPPLY: All or a portion of supply chain can be validly traced across sea areas.

7.4.3.1 TRACING SEA SUPPLY: In order trace supply across sea areas there must be one of a major power's depots in each of the two friendly controlled ports or port areas between which supply is to be traced. At least one of these ports must contain a fleet(s) of the major power and/or an ally and that port must be a supply source or be able to trace a valid supply chain via depots to a supply source. Neither port may be blockaded. If these conditions are fulfilled, the ports are valid links in a supply chain. The effect of this is as if the depots were in adjacent areas (regardless of the number of sea areas actually between them) for all purposes including placement of reinforcements.

7.4.3.2 BLOCKING SEA SUPPLY: Apart from fleets in the blockade boxes of ports used for sea supply, enemy fleets do not interrupt such a sea supply chain.

7.4.3.3 DARDANELLES/ICE LINE SUPPLY EFFECTS: Sea supply may not be traced into or through the Dardanelles sea area without the permission of the major power controlling Constantinople (if any) nor into or out of an area north of the ice line during winter months.

7.4.3.4 PORT CITY SUPPLY: Depots may be constructed in an unblockaded friendly controlled port even if besieged provided there exists a friendly unblockaded sea supply source (see 7.2.2).

7.4.3.4.1: This allows forces in that port to live off sea supply (rather than besieged supply).

7.4.3.4.2: This is the only case where depots are considered to be inside the city, rather than in the surrounding area.

7.4.3.4.3: At the end of a player's Movement Step a depot in a port city is moved into the surrounding area if the city is no longer besieged. If there is already an enemy depot in the surrounding area, the enemy depot is destroyed.

7.4.3.4.4: A depot in a port city is immediately removed when there is no longer an unblockaded sea supply source.

7.4.3.4.5: A depot in a port city may be immediately destroyed or converted to a friendly supply depot (if it would then be part of a valid supply chain) and moved into the surrounding area when the forces in the city accept honors of war, surrender, and/or are eliminated.

7.4.4 INVASION SUPPLY: A depot may be constructed on a fleet in a sea area and used to provide supply for all corps and/or besieged port city garrisons into all adjacent land areas (but not beyond) at the normal depot supply money point costs. Although this is normally used to supply disembarking corps, it can be used without the need for an actual "invasion" (disembarking corps). 7.4.4.1: Invasion supply can only be used if an unblockaded friendly controlled port that is a supply source or contains a depot that is part of a valid supply chain exists from which supply can be traced to the fleet. Note, the depot built on a ship must be that of the same major power.

7.4.4.2: If the fleet containing the depot should move for any reason, the depot is lost.

7.4.4.3: Invasion supply does not allow reinforcements to be placed, nor can it be a link in a chain of supply-it only directly supplies corps in adjacent land areas.

7.4.4.4: No more than one depot for invasion supply may be placed in any one sea area.

7.4.4.5: Invasion supply is not possible in a sea area north of the

ice line during winter months.

7.4.4.6: If the route from the port to the fleet must go into or through the Dardanelles sea area, the permission of the major power controlling the area (if any-see 10.7) is required.

7.4.5 BESIEGED SUPPLY: Unless eligible for sea or invasion supply, besieged garrisons and corps must check for supply by the foraging method, using the city supply value (which equals the number of spires in the city picture) rather than the forage value of the area containing the city.

7.4.5.1 BESIEGED SUPPLY DIE MODIFIER: The foraging die roll modifiers are not used for besieged supply. Instead, for every full 5 army factors in the besieged city (regardless of whether the factors are part of a corps or merely a garrison) "+1" is added to the die, to a maximum of "+ 2". For example, a city with 5 - 9 army factors would have "+ 1" added to the die roll. No other modifiers apply.

7.4.5.2 BESIEGED FORAGING LOSSES: For each point of the die roll over the city supply value, one army factor of the besieged garrison and/or corps is lost. If all the besieged army factors are lost, any besieged leaders become the prisoners of the besiegers and the besieging forces may immediately detach factors to control the city. NOTE: Unbesieged corps in a city use the forage value of the area in which they are in, not the city supply value.

7.4.5.3 BESIEGING FORCES: Besieging forces may live off regular supply or forage. If they forage they are considered to have spent their full movement allowance before dicing for supply and use the area supply value and normal modifiers. This occurs even if it is the first Turn of the siege.

[ 7.5 ] THE LAND COMBAT STEP: At the end of all movement and supply in a player's sequence the land combat procedure commences.

7.5.1 GENERAL RULES OF LAND COMBAT: If at the end of all movement of the phasing major power, enemy forces (excluding guerillas-see 10.1.1.3) occupy the same area as its corps, freikorps or cossacks, the phasing major power must attack in those areas (also see 7.3.7 and 7.3.8). The phasing side is the "attacker" and the non-phasing side is the "defender".

7.5.1.1 DEFENDER RETIREMENT INTO CITY: Any forces or portion o 1f forces upon whom an attack is declared may immediately retire into any friendly controlled or vacant, and unbesieged city in that area but not so as to exceed that city's garrison capacity

7.5.1.1.1: If there are several defending major powers wishing to retire into the city than agreement must be reached on who shall retire into the city. If no agreement can be reached, then none may retire.

7.5.1.1.2: If they all do so retire, the attackers may, if desired, be placed on top of the forces and a siege occurs.

7.5.1.1.3: If any portion of a defending force does not retire into a city, the attack continues against that portion.

7.5.1.1.4: A city must be able to hold all of the factors of entire corps that move in (plus any other factors that may be in or moved into the city).

7.5.1.2 WHO MAY PARTICIPATE IN LAND COMBATS: All corps, cossacks, freikorps, depot garrisons, and attacking guerillas in an area participate in field or trivial combat in the area. Forces inside cities are not included in field or trivial combat (they may only attack or be attacked via siege combat, see 7.5.4).

7.5.1.3 GENERAL SEQUENCE OF LAND COMBATS: All field, limited field and/or trivial combats may be resolved in any order at the phasing player's option. After a combat is completed, the phasing player's forces may immediately occupy and/or detach factors to occupy any friendly-controlled or vacant city in the area subject to usual restrictions (see 7.3.3). The phasing player's forces then conduct all siege combats (this can include forces which just took part in a field or trivial combat-see 7.5.4) in any desired order.

7.5.2 FIELD COMBAT PROCEDURE: Field combats simulate open-field battles. Individual field combats may be resolved in any order determined by the phasing player, and may be intermixed with any limited field and/or trivial combats. A combat in one area must be completed before commencing another combat. A complete example of a field combat is found in 7.5.2.15. Each individual field combat occurs in the following order:

7.5.2.1 STEP ONE-SELECTION OF CHITS: Both players select an Operational Possibilities chit. There are different chits for the attacker (gray) and the defender (white). An outflank chit may be chosen only if a force consists of at least two non-artillery corps and has a leader.

7.5.2.2 STEP TWO-OUTFLANK ANNOUNCEMENT: Each player declares whether or not he has picked the outflank chit. If both players or neither player picked the outflank chit, or if the attacking player picked the outflank chit and the defending player picked the cordon chit skip Step 3 and go directly to Step 4.

7.5.2.3 STEP THREE-DIVIDING AN OUTFLANKING FORCE: The player who picked the outflank chit must divide his forces into a "pinning" and an "outflanking" force.

7.5.2.3.1 Pinning Force Composition: The player designates part of his force (at least one non-artillery corps plus all leaders, all garrison factors on depots, artillery factors and attacking guerillas) as the "pinning force" before the other side reveals its tactical chit-only these will fight until the arrival of the outflanking force.

7.5.2.3.2 Outflanking Force Composition: The rest, comprising of at least one corps plus all cossacks and/or freikorps, are considered to be "moving around the flank" and are not included for combat purposes (which includes cavalry superiority-see option 12.3.3.1) until they "arrive". EXCEPTION: They are included for determination of the base morale levels (see 7.5.2.6).

7.5.2.4 STEP FOUR-REVEAL CHITS: Both players now reveal their chosen chits, and cross-index their operational possibilities chits on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART on the Game Card. If the defender did not choose "Withdraw", skip Step 5 and go directly to Step 6.

7.5.2.5 STEP FIVE-RESOLVE WITHDRAWALS: Any player who chose "Withdraw" now dices to see if his force does withdraw. 7.5.2.5.1 Withdrawal Avoids ]Battle: If the entire force does withdraw, skip Steps 6-13 and go directly to Step 14.

7.5.2.5.2 Withdrawal Procedure: If a player has picked the "Withdraw" chit, he dices to determine if he successfully withdraws. To be successful the die roll must be less than or equal to the appropriate strategic rating.

7.5.2.5.2.1: If the opposing side has chosen "Probe", the withdrawal is automatically successful and no die roll is necessary.

7.5.2.5.2.2: If some other chit has been chosen by the attacker then the defending player rolls a die, comparing the result to his commander's strategic rating (see 10.6.1.1 for determining a commander)..If he has no commander, each corps must be diced for separately, comparing the roll to its intrinsic strategic rating. These strategic ratings may be modified by notes on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART on the Game Card. Cossacks and freikorps that are with corps attempting to withdraw may attempt to withdraw with them using the rules in 10.1.2.2.3 for their withdrawal. Guerillas do not need to withdraw. Also see 7.5.2.12.2 for withdrawing from an outflanking force.

7.5.2.5.2.3: Each corps which withdraws is retreated by the method given in Retreat after Combat (see 7.5.2.10.3), except that the retreat is conducted by the controlling player. There is no pursuit. If any corps, depot garrison and/or cossack and/or freikorps remains, the combat is fought on the combat tables found on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART.

7.5.2.6 STEP SIX-REVEAL FORCES/MORALE LEVELS: Both players reveal their forces and determine their final morale levels.

7.5.2.6.1 Determining Morale Levels: Morale levels represent a force's "morale", and the higher the number the better. "Base morale levels" can be calculated by one of two methods. Players should decide before the game begins which method to use for their game. Also see the NATIONAL MORALE VALUES CHART on the Game Card.

7.5.2.6.1.1 Method One: The base morale level is calculated by adding up the products of the number of army factors having the same morale value, and dividing this total by the total number of army factors and rounding up to the next tenth of a point. Guerillas, freikorps and cossacks may be included in combat with a morale value of "1.0" Militia are included with a morale value of "2.0" Artillery are included with the morale of the major power's regular infantry. Guard infantry have a morale value of "5.0" Other infantry and cavalry have their morale values indicated on the back of their corps counters. For example, if a force of 51 total army factors has 21 factors at morale "3.0", 20factors at morale "4.0" and 1 0 factors at morale "5.0" this is: 21 times 3 plus 20 times 4 plus 10 times 5=193 divided by 51 factors=3.784 which rounds to a base morale level of "3.8."

7.5.2.6.1.2 Method Two: Method One for the determination of the base morale level of a force can be involved and almost certainly involves the use of a pocket calculator. Therefore, we offer this simpler (and faster) alternative; first, determine the "primary component" of the force. This will be that major power with the most corps present, including controlled minor free state corps (with equal numbers of corps present, the primary component is that major power with the lowest basic morale). The "basic morale" of this primary component provides the base number for determining the base morale level of the whole force. The basic morales are: Great Britain-"4.5;" France-"4.0;" Russia, Austria and Prussia-"3.5;" Spain and Turkey-"3. 0" (also see the NATIONAL MORALE VALUES CHART on the Game Card). The basic morale is increased by "+ 0.1" for every guard factor and reduced by "0.1" for every militia, cossack, freikorps, guerilla, feudal or minor free state infantry or cavalry factor with a morale value of "2.0" or less (see the backs of the minor country corps counters) in the force, even if not in the primary component. The basic morale may not be increased by more than a net "+0.5" nor decreased by more than a net "1.0". This is the base morale level of the force. For example, Austria has an army composed of 3 Guard, 28 regular infantry and 6 militia. Its basic morale is "3.5" plus "0.3" (3 Guard factors) minus "0.6" (6 militia factors "3.2" base morale level.

7.5.2.6.2 Final Morale Levels: The "final morale level" for each day is the base morale level minus "0.5" for each succeeding day of the combat after the first and any modifiers indicated on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART on the Game Card. The final morale level is the point at which the force will break. For example, a force with a base morale level of "3.2" will also use that figure for its final morale level on the first day of a combat. On the second day of a combat, the final morale level will be "3.2"minus "0.5" equals "2.7"

7.5.2.6.3 Reveal Forces: Both sides simultaneously reveal corps identities, the exact size and composition of their forces and their final morale levels.

7.5.2.7 STEP SEVEN-FIND COMBAT TABLES: The OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART refers each player to a series of three sets of combat tables on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART (both on the Game Card). One combat table is used per player per "round" for the three rounds for which a combat "day" lasts. The attacker uses those tables designated by "A" in the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART. The defender uses those tables designated by "D". For example, if the attacker selected the echelon chit and the defender selected the counterattack chit, the attacker's combat tables would be "1-2" (first round), "3-4" (second round) and "2-4" (third round) and the defender's combat tables would be "3-1," "4-1" and "2-1". Each combat table is identified by two numbers (ie., "3-1 "). The first number represents the "casualty level" and the second number represents the "morale level" of the combat table and these levels are cross-indexed on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART to find the combat table used for a round of combat. For example, the "1-5" combat table is the one located in the lower left-hand corner of the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART.

7.5.2.7.1 River Crossing Combat Tables: If any of the attacking forces have crossed a river, a crossing arrow and/or disembarked from at sea to enter the combat area then the river sections (found only in the assault, escalated assault, echelon and probe columns on the cordon line) of the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART are used where appropriate for the first day's combat. If combat continues into a second day, then the normal sections are used.

7.5.2.7.2 Outflanking Tables To Use: Until the outflanking force arrives, the first set (labelled " 1 st ") of combat resolution tables on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART are used, with the percentage losses caused by the outflanking side being based on the pinning force army factors only. Once the outflanking force has "arrived" the second set labelled "2nd") of combat resolution tables are used with each army factor in the outflanking army factors of the force counting as two army factors for the purpose of determining percentage losses. For example, an outflanking attacker has a pinning force of 20 factors with a 10 factor outflanking force and faces a defender who chose the counterattack operational possibilities chit. In the first combat round, the attacker would have 20 factors on the "2-1" combat table and the defender would use all defending factors on the "2-3" combat table. Assume that the attacker loses 4 factors in the first combat round and that the outflanking forces arrive (see 7 5.2.12) for the second combat round. For the second combat round, the attacker would have 16factors (left from the pinning force) plus two times 10 factors in the outflanking force equals 20 factors for a total attacking force treated as 36factors on the "4-4" combat table and the defender would use all surviving defending factors on the "3-1" combat table.

7.5.2.7.3 Combat Table Modifiers: These combat table may be cumulatively modified by terrain effects in the area where numbers a field combat occurs, although the casualty and morale level numbers may never be modified above "5" nor below "1" regardless of the modifiers that apply. These modifiers are:

7.5.2.7.3.1 Forest Modifiers: In forest areas the casualty level is decreased by "1" for both sides (eg., combat table " 2-2" becomes "1-2").

7.5.2.7.3.2 Mountain Modifiers: In mountain areas the attacker's casualty level is reduced by 1.

7.5.2.7.3.3 Desert Modifiers: In desert areas the morale level is increased by "+1" for both sides (eg., combat table " 2-2" becomes "2-3").

7.5.2.7.3.4 Marsh Modifiers: In marsh areas the casualty level is decreased by "1" and the morale level is increased by "+1" for both sides (eg., combat table "2-2" becomes "1-3").

7.5.2.8 STEP EIGHT-GUARD AND ARTILLERY USE (OPTIONAL): Guard commitment and artillery bombardments (see options 12.3.4 and 12.3.5) ), now take place in the order guard commitment followed by artillery bombardment, if relevant.

7.5.2.9 STEP NINE-COMBAT RESOLUTION: The opposing players each throw one die each and crossgrid their modified rolls on their respective combat tables on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART for each round, applying the result. Combat is considered to be conducted simultaneously so both forces take their losses at the same time.

7.5.2.9.1 Die Roll Modifiers: See 10.6.1 for determining commanders and their tactical ratings. The die roll is modified by commander differences. Use the COMMANDER CHART on the Game Card and crossgrid the opposing commander's tactical ratings to find the modifiers. For example, if the attacking commander's tactical rating is "4" and the defending commander's tactical rating is "3, " the attacker's die roll is modified by "+1". Any optional modifier (see 12.3.3.1) is cumulative with the commander modifiers, although the maxi mum cumulative modifier can never exceed "+1".

7.5.2.9.1.1: Commander tactical ratings are recalculated after every round of combat (they can change if reinforcing corps or a new reinforcing commander arrive).

7.5.2.9.1.2: If desired, a player may declare at the start of a combat round that his commander's tactical rating is less than it actually is for purposes of determining the die roll modifiers on the COMMANDER CHART.

7.5.2.9.2 Percentage Loss-Types of Casualties: The "percentage loss" ("%LS") result is the percentage (see the CASUALTY PERCENTAGE TABLE on the Game Card) of that side's number of army factors which the other side must remove as losses. Losses incurred may be taken in any fashion within the following conditions:

7.5.2.9.2.1: Where possible, militia casualties may be taken only until (not including) the round in which the cumulative morale loss of the army equals or exceeds "2.0".

7.5.2.9.2.2: In the round in which a side breaks, one of its losses must be cavalry (any type-regular, feudal, cossack or freikorps), if possible.

7.5.2.9.2.3: Factors that become casualties in one combat round may not be used in later rounds.

7.5.2.9.3 Morale Loss: The "morale loss" ("MRLS") is subtracted from the other side's final morale level. These are accumulated from round to round.

7.5.2.10 STEP TEN-VICTORY AND DEFEAT: When a force is eliminated or its total morale loss reaches or exceeds its final morale level it breaks, may be pursued and must retreat (unless totally eliminated). The combat is over and no further combat rounds are resolved. This may occur at the end of any round. Skip this step and go to Step 11 if the field combat continues. If the combat is over, perform this step, then skip to Step 14.

7.5.2.10.1 Winning a Field Combat: A major power wins a field combat when the enemy side or an enemy pinning force either breaks or is completely eliminated.

7.5.2.10.1.1 "Breaking": When a side's total morale loss equals or exceeds its final morale level, it" breaks" (retreats from the field) and combat ceases after that round has been completed. In the round in which a side breaks, at least one of that side's losses incurred must be cavalry, if possible.

7.5.2.10.1.2 Pinning Force Defeat: If a pinning force breaks or is eliminated before the outflanking force "arrives", the whole side (including the outflanking force) is considered to be broken and may be pursued.

7.5.2.10.1.2.1: If the pinning force is eliminated before the outflanking force "arrives", all enemy leaders present are captured by the victor and the outflanking force is broken and may be pursued.

7.5.2.10.1.2.2: If a pinning force is eliminated, any excess casualties caused to that side go on the outflanking force.

7.5.2.10.1.3 Political Points For Winning/Losing Field Combats: The victor now gains political points and the loser loses them, recorded on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card). Half a political point is gained or lost for each corps of the defeated side (rounding fractions up) used during any round of that combat (this includes corps in outflanking forces that never arrive, but not reinforcing corps that do not arrive) up to a maximum of "+ 3" political points. For this purpose a single corps which begins or reinforces a battle with more than 20 factors in it is treated as 2 corps.

7.5.2.10.1.3.1: If the victor was commanded by the NAPOLEON leader, they get one extra political point.

7.5.2.10.1.3.2: If the loser was commanded by the NAPOLEON leader, they lose two extra political points.

7.5.2.10.2 Pursuit After Combat: When a side breaks, the victor may launch a "pursuit" using the victor's cavalry factors. Pursuit procedure is as follows:

7.5.2.10.2.1 Pursuit Class: The "pursuit class" is determined from the PURSUIT CLASS TABLE on the Game Card by crossgridding the victor's total morale loss in the combat with the number of combat rounds completed. Combats going into two or more days always use the "3+" rounds column. The number found is the "pursuit class number", which is then applied on the PURSUIT TABLE. For example, if the victor had a "2.6" total morale loss when the loser breaks at the end of the second combat round, the "2-2.9" line is crossgridded with the "2" column to find a "3" pursuit class. EXCEPTION: If a pursuit is ordered against forces withdrawing after a day's combat rather than breaking, automatically use a "1" pursuit class (prior to applying any modifiers).

7.5.2.10.2.2 Pursuit Class Modifiers: The following cumulative modifiers all apply when using the PURSUIT TABLE:

7.5.2.10.2.2.1 Cavalry Leader Present: "+1" is added to the die roll if a cavalry leader (denoted by a cavalry leader symbol on the leader counter) is present on the victor's side at the combat even if he was not the commander, so long as at least one cavalry factor of the leader's major power takes part in the pursuit.

7.5.2.10.2.2.2 In Forest, Mountain or Desert: If the combat took place in a forest, mountain or desert area, the pursuit class column used on the PURSUIT TABLE is shifted one column to the right of the column indicated by the pursuit class number (a "-1" modification). For example, if the pursuit class number from the PURSUIT CLASS TABLE is "3" and the combat area is forest, mountain or desert, the shift is from the "3" to the "2" column.,

7.5.2.10.2.2.3 In Marsh: If the combat took place in a marsh area, the pursuit class column used on the PURSUIT TABLE is shifted two columns to the right of the column indicated by the pursuit class number (a "2" modification).

7.5.2.10.2.2.4 No Pursuit: Any result modified to less than a class 1 pursuit means that no pursuit takes place.

7.5.2.10.2.3 Pursuit Losses: Roll the die and crossgrid the modified die roll number with the modified pursuit class column on the PURSUIT TABLE. The result is the percentage loss of the total (this does include cavalry factors that were in an outflanking force that did not arrive) cavalry factors in the victor's force inflicted on the broken force. Every loss in the broken force not taken in cavalry (which includes cossacks and freikorps) is taken as three non-militia or six militia factors (ie., 1 cavalry= 3 infantry = 6 militia). If the entire losing force is eliminated by pursuit, all losing leaders are captured by the victor.

7.5.2.10.3 Retreat After Losing A Combat: The loser is retreated one area by the victor. This occurs after pursuit (if any).

7.5.2.10.3.1: All retreats must be into an adjacent land area that is closest (any closest area, if several qualify equally) to the nearest depot of any nationality in the losing forceforce, or if none is on the map, towards that force's nearest controlled national capital city.

7.5.2.10.3.2: A retreating force may never be split up.

7.5.2.10.3.3: If the area retreated to contains an unbesieged enemy corps, cossack, freikorps or depot garrison, the force is retreated one more area (same rules as 7.5.2.10.3.1), etc., until an open area is reached.

7.5.2.10.3.4: Retreat across a crossing arrow or onto ships is not permitted.

7.5.2.10.3.5: A force may not retreat into the same area twice in the same retreat.

7.5.2.10.3.6: A force must surrender (A army factors and leaders in the force become prisoners) if no retreat route is available.

7.5.2.10.4 Unusual Field Combat Results: Sometimes field combats may have unusual conclusions.

7.5.2.10.4.1 Break and Eliminated: If a side's forces break in the same combat round in which the enemy forces are completely eliminated (or a pinning force is eliminated before the outflankers arrive) then the broken major power wins the combat and does not retreat (an outflanking force whose pinning force was eliminated does retreat. Political points are gained by the winner (survivor) and lost by the loser of this victory as per 7.5.2.10.1.3.

7.5.2.10.4.2 Both Break: If both forces break in the same combat round and there are survivors on both sides then neither side wins, gains or loses political points, or is pursued. Only the attacker retreats-as per 7.5.2.10.3, except that the attacker retreats his own forces.

7.5.2.11 STEP ELEVEN-REINFORCING ATTEMPTS: After each round of a combat "day," players may attempt to reinforce from adjacent land areas.

7.5.2.11.1 Reinforcing A Field Combat: After each round of field combat-corps, cossacks, freikorps and guerillas in adjacent land areas may attempt to reinforce. Furthermore, unbesieged corps, cossacks, freikorps or guerillas (for an attacker) in a city in the same or an adjacent area to the field combat may also attempt to reinforce.

7.5.2.11.1.1: Reinforcement across a crossing arrow or by disembarking is not permitted.

7.5.2.11.1.2: Forces may not attempt to reinforce if they have already or will take part in another combat this same major power sequence. Trivial combats do not count as a combat to prevent attempts to reinforce. If all of a side's forces in an as yet unresolved trivial combat leave to reinforce another combat, the trivial combat does not take place

7.5.2.11.1.3: Allied forces may take part in a combat round only if at war with all the major powers on one side, by reinforcing the other side (unless also at war with a major power on that side) even if they would not otherwise move in this major power's sequence of the Land Movement Step.

7.5.2.11.2 Reinforcing Procedure: If the reinforcing forces have a leader (determine a commander as in 10.6.1.1.1, if there is more than one leader) with them (essential to reinforce with cossacks, freikorps and/or guerillas), the leader's strategic value is used when dicing to reinforce with all the corps in that area as a single unit, otherwise each corps dices separately to reinforce. The commander's strategic rating or less needs to be rolled to reinforce. If a leader is used for a reinforcing force, one ore more counters may be left behind, if desired.

7.5.2.11.3 Strategic Rating Modifiers For Reinforcing: A reinforcing commander's or corps' strategic rating is reduced by "-1" if it occupies a mountain, forest or marsh area, or wishes to reinforce across a river. The reductions are not cumulative-the maximum reduction never exceeds "-1". A reduction may result in corps being unable to reinforce at all.

7.5.2.11.4 Pinning Force Reinforcements: Any friendly forces that reinforce a battle on a side with a pinning and an outflanking force are attached to the pinning force, not to the outflanking force.

7.5.2.11.5 Using Reinforcements: A side's final morale level is not changed due to the arrival of reinforcements but its cavalry factors (not doubled for this purpose) are counted for determining cavalry superiority (see option 12.3.3.1) and all of its army factors may be added to the side's army factors for determining percentage losses on the enemy. A reinforcing leader may take command if 10.6.1.1.3 applies.

7.5.2.12 STEP TWELVE-ARRIVAL OF OUTFLANKING FORCES: After the first and second combat rounds of the day, players may attempt to roll for the arrival of outflanking forces.

7.5.2.12.1 Outflanking Force Arrival (?): At the end of the first round of combat the outflanking player rolls a die and compares the number rolled to the commander's strategic rating.

7.5.2.12.1.1: If the die roll is less than or equal to the commander's strategic rating, as modified (all modifiers are cumulative) by terrain and notes on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART, the outflank is successful and the outflanking forces "arrives", otherwise, the outflankers must dice again for possible arrival at the end of the 2nd round.

7.5.2.12.1.2: For outflanking, Commanders' strategic ratings are

reduced by "-1" if the area containing the reinforcing forces is a forest, mountain or marsh area.

7.5.2.12.1.3: The strategic rating of a commander is increased by "+2" at the end of the second combat round.

7.5.2.12.2 Withdraw vs. Outflanking: If the opposing side chose the outflank chit and the outflanking force does not arrive after the first round, all remaining corps of a withdraw chit side are withdrawn successfully before the second round is fought. This is handled as a normal withdrawal, as in 7.5.2.5.2.3. There is no pursuit.

If this is not the third round of the day, repeat Steps 7-12, using the combat tables appropriate for each combat round.

7.5.2.13 STEP THIRTEEN - "END OF DAY" WITHDRAWAL / ADDITIONAL COMBAT: At the conclusion of three combat rounds (ie., one combat "day"), if neither side has been eliminated or broken, the players have the choice to continue a battle or to end it. The opposing commanders should secretly note their intention to "fight" or "withdraw", then reveal their choices simultaneously.

7.5.2.13.1 Withdrawing After A "Day" of Combat:Either or both sides may automatically withdraw if that was their choice. These withdrawals are handled as per losing a combat (see 7.5.2.10.3.1), but are conducted by the controlling players for their sides. If both sides choose to withdraw, both must leave the area and there are no pursuits. Since no one was defeated, no political points are gained or lost from the combat

7.5.2.13.2 New "Days" of Combat: If both players chose to fight, the combat goes into a further day (three rounds more). New Operational Possibilities chits are chosen, etc., repeating Steps 1-12.

7.5.2.13.2.1: The final morale levels used are those of the first day less "-0.5" for each succeeding day plus any OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART modifiers. Final morale levels are otherwise not re-calculated even if reinforcements arrived.

7.5.2.13.2.2: Any outflanking forces that have not yet arrived rejoin the pinning force "overnight," so that all forces are once again united at the start of each day. Possible reinforcing forces do not arrive overnight.

7.5.2.14 STEP FOURTEEN-DEPOTS AFTER FIELD BATTLES: If there are any enemy supply depots in the area with only friendly forces remaining, then that supply depot may be destroyed or converted to a friendly supply depot if it would then be part of a valid supply chain (see 7.3.6.2).

7.5.2.15 EXAMPLE OF FIELD COMBAT:

Turkey is at war with Russia. In its Land Movement Step it moves with 7 corps containing 18 feudal infantry, 18 feudal cavalry and 14 Janissary (regular infantry) factors into an area containing 4 Russian corps with 6 Guard infantry, 17 regular infantry, 13 militia and 1 regular cavalry factors. These forces are not revealed until after cross-referencing on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART occurs.

STEP ONE (see 7.5.2.1): The Turkish player chooses from the attacker's set of operational possibilities chits and the Russian player from the defender's set.

STEP TWO (see 7.5.2.2): Next, each player declares whether or not they have chosen "outflank". Neither has, so Step Three (see 7.5.2.3) is skipped.

STEP FOUR (see 7.5.2.4): Turkey now reveals he has chosen the "assault" chit and Russia shows the "cordon" chit. Since the Russians did not choose the "withdraw" chit, Step Five (see 7.5.2.5) is skipped.

STEP SIX (see 7.5.2.6): Morale (using Method One) for Turkey is: 36 (feudal infantry and cavalry factors) times 2.0 morale value plus 14 (Janissary infantry factors) times 3.0 morale value equals 114 divided by 50 army factors equals 2.28, which round up to "2.3" base and final morale level. Morale for Russia is: 6 (guard infantry factors) times 5.0 morale value plus 17 (regular infantry factors) times 3.0 morale value plus 13 (militia factors) times 2.0 morale value plus 1 (regular cavalry factor) times 4.0 morale value equals 111 divided by 37 army factors equals "3.0" base and final morale level. Both sides reveal their sizes (number of army factors) and compositions (types of army factors).

STEP SEVEN-FIRST ROUND (see 7.5.2.7): Cross-referencing on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART indicates that for the first round Turkey is on the "4-1" table and Russia on the "2-1" table. No terrain modifiers apply. Step Eight (see 7.5.2.8) is skipped, as those options are not being used.

STEP NINE-FIRST ROUND (see 7.5.2.9): Both players have a leader with a modified tactical rating of "2" which results in no leader die roll modifiers from the COMMANDER CHART. If option 12.3.3.1 were used (it is not), Turkey would have a "+1" die roll modifier for (8 feudal cavalry versus 1 regular cavalry factor) cavalry superiority. Turkey, on the "4-1" table, rolls a "4", which causes a 10 percentage loss (10% of 50 Turkish army factors = 5 Russian army factors lost) and a "-1. 0" morale loss. The Russians can take all of their army factor losses in militia factors as their total morale loss is less than "2. 0. " Russia, on the "2-1" table, rolls a "3, " which causes a 5 percentage loss (5 % of 3 7 Russian army factors = 2 Turkish army factors lost) and a "-.02" rale loss. The Turks take both of their army factor losses as feudal infantry factors. As neither side breaks nor is eliminated and there are no reinforcements or flanking forces involved, Steps Ten through Twelve are skipped (see 7.5.2.10-75.2.12) and play moves to the second combat round.

STEP SEVEN-SECOND ROUND: On the second round Turkey is on the "4-3" table and Russia is on the "2-1" table.

STEP NINE-SECOND ROUND: Again, no die roll modifiers. Turkey, on the "4-3" table, rolls another "4", which causes a 15 percentage loss (15 % of 48 surviving Turkish army factors = 7 Russian army factors lost) and a "-2.0" morale loss. Russia, on the "2-1" table, rolls a "4," which causes a 5 percentage loss (5% of 32 Russian army factors=2 Turkish army factors lost) and a "-.05" morale loss. The Turks again eliminate two feudal infantry factors. Russia has broken as total morale loss is "-3.0", "-1.0" in round one plus "-2.0" in round two, exactly equalling the Russian final morale value), therefore one of the losses inflicted in the last round must be cavalry (the Russian loses his only regular cavalry factor) and none can be militia (if possible) as morale loss has exceeded a total of "-2.0" this round (6 Russian regular infantry factors are removed). Russia now has 6 guard, 11 regular infantry and 8 militia factors remaining.

STEP TEN (see 7.5.2.10): Having broken the Russians and having cavalry, Turkey now pursues the Russians. As it was the second round in which the Russians broke and Turkey has lost a total of "-0.7" morale, checking the PURSUIT CLASS TABLE shows a "5" pursuit class. On the PURSUIT TABLE, Turkey rolls a "5" which means 60 % of 18 Turkish Feudal cavalry factors = 11 pursuit loses to the Russians. this is equivalent to 33 regular infantry and/or guard factors which is a lot more than the Russian has, therefore his force is wiped out and the leader(s) captured. Turkey gains 2 political points and Russia loses 2, as there were 4 corps on the losing side.

7.5.3 TRIVIAL COMBATS: Combats in which one side initially consists solely of garrison factors on a depot, cossacks, freikorps and/or guerillas not in cities must be resolved using trivial combat. Players may also resolve any other field or limited field combats in this manner, if both commanders agree.

7.5.3.1: Trivial combats are resolved similarly to field combats, but the procedure is much simplified. No operational possibilities chits are chosen, but commander (see 7.5.2.9.1) and cavalry superiority (see option 12.3.3.1) modifiers are included as for field combats. Trivial combats may not be reinforced (see 7.5.2.1.1) unless trivial combat procedure is being used to resolve a field or limited field combat.

7.5.3.2: Combat is fought using the "5-2" combat table for both sides for all three combat rounds, subject to modification for terrain (see 7.5.2.7) and guard commitment (see option 12.3.4). Additional "days" of combat may be fought using trivial combat.

7.5.3.3: Any type of factor may be removed as a casualty, at the controlling player's option, during any round of a trivial combat (ignore the restrictions of 7.5.2.9.2.1).

7.5.3.4: The normal field combat methods of determining final morale values, breaks, retreats, withdrawals at the end of a "day" and pursuit rules are followed. Depot and city garrisons cannot retreat and losing survivors that break must surrender if not eliminated by a pursuit.

7.5.3.5: No political points are gained or lost in trivial combats. EXCEPTION: If both commanders had agreed to resolve what could have been a field or limited field combat by using trivial combat procedures, the normal political point changes are made (see 7.5.2.10.1.3).

7.5.4 SIEGES: These represent the surrounding and reduction of garrisoned enemy cities. A major power's corps may besiege any occupied city in territory controlled by a major power or minor neutral with which it is at war or any city occupied by enemy troops wherever it is located. Guerillas, freikorps and cossacks may only conduct sieges in conjunction with friendly corps. Depot garrisons may never take part in sieges. The forces besieging a city are the "besiegers", and the garrison inside the city are the "defenders". A phasing force that just attacked and won a field or trivial combat in an area may then besiege an enemy city in that same area if all corps in the, phasing force used depot (regular, sea and/or invasion) supply, and/or did not use unused movement points to modify a foraging roll (see 7.4.1.2.2).

7.5.4.1 BESIEGER ASSAULT ATTEMPTS: A besieging major power may elect to launch "assault" attempts. For assault attempts a die is rolled and the result referenced to the SIEGE TABLE on the Game Card.

7.5.4.1.1 Assault Attempt Modifiers: The die roll for assault attempts is cumulatively modified as follows:

7.5.4.1.1.1 City Siege Value: The city siege value (the number of fleches in the city picture on the mapboard) is subtracted from the die roll.

7.5.4.1.1.2 Undergarrisoned: "+1" is added if the city is not garrisoned to within 5 factors of the city's garrison capacity. For example, if the garrison capacity is 15, one will be added if there are 9 or less factors in the city.

7.5.4.1.2 Assault Attempt Results: The results from the SIEGE TABLE are resolved as follows.

7.5.4.1.2.1 Sortie?: If "sortie?" is the result the defender may elect to "sortie" (historically, in a sortie a besieged force would launch a limited surprise attack on the besiegers) out against the besieging force. In a sortie, the defending player rolls a die. On a roll of "5" or "6" the defender loses one army factor (defending player's choice), and any other result is a one army factor loss (besieging player's choice) to the besieger. If the defender chooses not to roll a die, nothing happens.

7.5.4.1.2.2 NR: No results. Nothing happens.

7.5.4.1.2.3 Breach: If "breach" (indicating that a gap has been blown through the defender's walls) is the result on the SIEGE TABLE, the following may be done:

7.5.4.1.3 Assault Combat Resolution: These simulate attempts to "storm" a city by an assault through a breach. Assault Combat is resolved similarly to trivial combat, but is even more simplified.

7.5.4.1.3.1: The besieging forces fight on the "5-1" combat table and the defenders on the "5-2" combat table of the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART on the Game Card for a maximum of three rounds (assault combats never last more than one "day") with no modifications for terrain, leaders and/or cavalry superiority. All available factors on both side must participate. There are no pursuits and assault combats may not be reinforced.

7.5.4.1.3.2: Final morale levels are determined as per 7.5.2.6.

7.5.4.1.3.3: Any type of army factor may be removed as a casualty., at the controlling player's option, during any round of an assault combat.

7.5.4.1.3.4: If the besieger loses or does not win (break or eliminate the defenders) within three rounds, the siege is resumed, with no further combat this player sequence.

7.5.4.1.3.5: If the besieger wins (the defender is eliminated or broken), then the city is captured and all surviving army factors and leaders are surrendered.

7.5.4.1.4 Political Points For Siege Assault Combat Winners: If the assaulted city contains a corps and/or is a "fortress" (has one or more fleches), the defender gets one political point if the besieger loses (is eliminated or broken) or does not win within three rounds, and the besieger gets one political point if the city is captured. Record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card. No political points are ever lost on either side, regardless of the outcome and none are gained if the city has a no corps and/or is not a fortress (has no fleches).

7.5.4.2 DEFENDER ATTACKS BESIEGER: Defenders may attack besiegers during the defending player's sequence of a Land Combat Step, if desired.

7.5.4.2.1 Garrison Attack Combats: These simulate a city garrison attacking the besiegers and are resolved similarly to siege assault combats.

7.5.4.2.1.1: If the defending garrison or a portion thereof (all defending factors do not have to be used) chooses to attack, the defending major power uses the "5-1" combat table and the besieger (who must use all available factors) uses the "5-2" combat table on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART for a maximum of three rounds (garrison attack combats never last more than one "day") with no modifications for terrain, leaders, or cavalry superiority. There are no pursuits and these combats cannot be reinforced.

7.5.4.2.1.2: Final morale levels are determined as per 7.5.2.6.

7.5.4.2.1.3: Any type of army factor may be removed as a casualty, at the controlling player's option, during any round of a garrison attack combat.

7.5.4.2.1.4: If the defending force loses or does not win (break or eliminate the besiegers) within three rounds, the siege is resumed, unless the combat eliminates every army factor in a garrison, in which case the city is captured.

7.5.4.2.1.5: If the defender wins, the besieger retreats in accordance with the retreat after combat rules (see 7.5.2.10.3), but may not be pursued, and any previously besieged corps may, if desired, be immediately moved out of the city into the surrounding area.

7.5.4.2.2 Political Points For Garrison Attack Combats: There are no political points gained or lost for garrison attack combats.

7.5.4.2.3 Relieving Force-Limited Field Combats: If the besieged force attacks with the help of "relieving forces" (ie., external corps that enter the area from another area) or such relieving forces attack without assistance from any part (all besieged factors do not have to be used) of the besieged force, a "limited" field combat instead of a defender attack combat is fought. Limited field combats are fought at the same time as field and trivial combats (ie., before any siege assault or defender attack combats). A limited field combat is a normal field combat (use all normal field combat rules) that may not exceed one "day" (three combat rounds) in length and uses the following special rules:

7.5.4.2.3.1 Relieving Force Fails TO Win: If the relieving force breaks or does not win within 3 rounds, the siege is resumed.

7.5.4.2.3.2 Relieving Force Wins: If the besiegers break, they retreat in accordance with the normal retreat after combat rules (see 7.5.2.10.3), but may only be pursued by cavalry that is in the relieving force (not in the siege defender's force) and any previously besieged corps may, if desired, then be immediately moved out of the city into the surrounding area.

7.5.4.2.3.3 Political Points For Limited Field Combats: Political points for winning and losing are assigned as for field combats (see 7.5.2.10.1.3). To win or lose, one side must be broken or eliminated, otherwise the combat is considered a draw.

7.5.5 REMOVAL OF CORPS: At the end of a day's combat, when all casualties are removed, excess corps counters emptied by losses may also be removed from the mapboard. This may cause

a change in a commander's tactical rating for the next day's combat (see 10. 6.1.2.1)

[ 7.6 ] THE GUERILLA STEP: Guerilla creation and anti - guerilla operations occur in this step-see 10.1.1.

[ 7.7 ] THE CONQUEST STEP: This step is performed after all major power sequences are completed. It can be performed any convenient order. Control flags are changed to show the conquest of minor countries and their change of control. The control flags are changed only if the capital of the minor country was occupied during the previous Turn and the conqueror has maintained uninterrupted and unbesieged occupation for the entire current Turn. A newly conquered minor country is always marked with a conquered control flag.

8.0 * THE ECONOMIC PHASE

During this phase, which occurs only at the end of the March, June, September and December Turns, money and manpower are collected and certain expenditures are made. Players should keep track of their current amounts of money on a separate sheet of paper or use the REINFORCEMENTS RECORD and ECONOMIC AND MANPOWER WORKSHEET forms on copies of side two of the National Cards. Prussia should do similarly for current saved manpower levels. The actions of the Economic Phase occur in the following order:

[ 8.1 ]THE VICTORY POINTS STEP: In this step, the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card is consulted and each major power receives the victory Points specified for the position at which it is located. For example, if the Austrian political status marker was on the square at the extreme right of the neutral zone line, Austria would receive 8 victory points.

8.1.1 RECORDING VICTORY POINTS: The victory points gained are recorded by adjusting each major power's victory point markers on the VICTORY POINTS DISPLAY on the Status are to show the new total of victory points.

8.1.2 POSSIBLE BRITISH CHANGE IN VICTORY POINTS: The British player has the option of spending up to one third of the victory points he gained this step to subtract that same number of victory points from the total victory points of any ONE major power with which Great Britain is currently at war. This is done instead of Great Britain gaining those victory points.

8.1.3 HOW TO WIN A GAME: During the Victory Points Step of a game's final Turn, or possibly sooner, a victor is determined.

8.1.3.1 SCENARIO VICTORY: Each scenario has its own victory conditions (see the individual scenarios in 13.0) and the victory determination systems are different from those used for campaign games.

8.1.3.2 CAMPAIGN VICTORY: Victory points are collected during each Victory Points Step (see 8.1). In the campaign games, the first player(s) to obtain enough total victory points to reach or exceed his major power's victory level and announce this fact (it does not have to be announced at the first opportunity) is a winner. If two or more major powers have reached or exceeded their victory levels simultaneously, those major powers are cowinners. Players may not transfer victory points to each other. If no player reaches the required victory level by the end of a campaign game, Great Britain wins.

8.1.3.2.1 The Major Power Victory Levels: The required victory levels for each major power are given in the VICTORY LEVELS CHART on the Game Card.

8.1.3.2.2 Shorter Campaigns: If players wish to finish a campaign game earlier, they can determine the victor by calculating the major power which has attained the largest percentage of its victory level. Average these percentages for players controlling two major powers (see 14.2.2).

8.1.3.2.3 The Final Victory Points Step: During a Victory Points Step when the announced total victory points of a major power has matched or exceeded that major power's victory level or, if the final month that will be played has been concluded, during the final Victory Points Step of the game, manpower levels are counted for additional victory points.

8.1.3.2.3.1: Each major power counts its total currently controlled manpower values in controlled home nation provinces, controlled ceded provinces of other home nations and conquered minor countries (none of the component territories of the new political combinations used in options 11.1-11.6 count as conquered). Controlled minor free states and/or controlled provinces or minor countries with capitals currently occupied by an enemy are not counted.

8.1.3.2.3.2: These manpower values are added as extra victory points to the major power's victory point totals for determining a winner or winners.

8.1.3.2.3.3: For players controlling two major powers (see 14.2.2) to win, both of their major powers must match or exceed their victory level or the excess victory points of one of these major powers must be enough that, by adding these excess (not needed to match its own victory level) victory points to the other major power's victory points, that addition will be enough to bring that second major power to its victory level.

[ 8.2 ] THE MONEY AND MANPOWER COLLECTION STEP: The "tax" (for money) and "manpower" (recruiting for ships and army factors) values for each province are printed within the province on the mapboard. The domestic trading values for each port city are printed in its blockade box. NOTE: Copies of the ECONOMIC AND MANPOWER WORKSHEET forms on side 2 of the National Cards are useful for the calculations involved in 8.2-8.5.

8.2.1 MONEY COLLECTION: There are a number of sources from which a major power may collect money. Each player totals the money due to him from Economic Manipulation (see option 12.5-this may be negative), from taxation, from trade and Spanish Gold. This total is added to any accumulated amount carried over from previous quarters.

 

8.2.1.1 MONEY COILLECTION BY TAXATION: The tax money due a major power is determined by adding together all of the tax values of all of its controlled home provinces, currently ceded enemy provinces and conquered minor countries. The tax money due a controlled minor free state is similarly and separately figured (see 8.2.3). A major power may not collect taxes from a province or minor country if its capital city is occupied by unbesieged enemy factors. A major power collects no taxes at all (except for its minor free states) if its national capital city (or, in the case of Russia, if either Moscow or St. Petersburg) is occupied by unbesieged enemy factors.

8.2.1.2 MONEY COLIEC'FION BY TRADE: The trade money due a major power is determined by adding together all of the domestic trading values of its ports. The domestic trade money due a controlled minor free state is similarly and separately figured. For ALL trade, Great Britain announces all trading he wishes to conduct, after which each major power involved may agree or disagree.

Great Britain may trade with any eligible ports, but only if the major

power controlling the port also wishes to trade.

8.2.1.2.1 Domestic (Normal) Trade: All domestic trade is considered to be done with Great Britain. When an eligible port does trade, Great Britain receives the first trading value amount listed for its trade and the controlling major power gains the second trading value amount.

8.2.1.2.1.1: A port is not eligible for trading (domestic or overseas) if it is blockaded, besieged, or occupied by an enemy major power other than the major power controlling the province or minor country in which the port lies.

8.2.1.2.1.2: Ports north of the ice line are not eligible for trade in the last (December) Economic Phase of a year.

8.2.1.2.1.3: Ports on the Black Sea can only trade if given permission by the major power controlling Constantinopole.

8.2.1.2.1.4: A major power may not trade using any port in a province or minor country if that province or minor country's capital city is occupied by unbesieged enemy factors.

8.2.1.2.1.5: A major power may not conduct any trade (except through eligible controlled minor free state ports) if its national capital city (both Moscow and St. Petersburg for Russia) is occupied by unbesieged enemy factors. A major power at war with Great Britain may not conduct any domestic trade.

8.2.1.2.1.6: Great Britain may trade with ports in minor neutral countries, with no major power earning the second amount.

8.2.1.2.1.7: Great Britain may trade with eligible ports in provinces and minor conquered countries it controls, gaining both values. Great Britain may also trade with eligible ports in minor free states it controls, gaining the first amount, the minor free state gaining the second.

8.2.1.2.2 Overseas Trade: This represents trade with nations and colonies not shown on the map.

8.2.1.2.2.1 British Colonial Trade: Great Britain receives an additional 30 (only 15 money points while at war with the U.S.A.-see 8.2.1.2.2.2.2.3) money points for trade with its colonies.

8.2.1.2.2.2 American Trade: American trade represents European trade with the American continents.

8.2.1.3 SPANISH GOLD: Spain receives money from a yearly gold convoy from Spanish overseas colonies-two dice are rolled on the SPANISH GOLD CONVOY TABI-E on the Game Card during the September Economic Phase only and the amount indicated is received in money points. If Great Britain is at war with Spain at this time, modify the dice roll by "-2". A modified dice roll of less than "2" results in there being no gold for Spain this year-instead, Great Britain has captured the gold convoy and gets 15 money points for the capture. If all Spanish-controlled ports are blockaded and/or if no ports are Spanish-controlled or unoccupied by enemy forces then there is also no gold convoy, although there is also no dice roll in this case.

8.2.2 MANPOWER COLLECTION: Each player totals the manpower due to him from Economic Manipulation (this may be negative), from friendly controlled home provinces and conquered minor countries only. Manpower is not collected from ceded enemy provinces nor from a controlled province or minor country whose capital city contains unbesieged enemy factors. The presence of an unbesieged enemy in the national capital of a major power does not affect the collection of manpower except for the capital's province.

8.2.3 MINOR FREE STATES MONEY AND MANPOWER

COLLECTION: Minor free states gain double the money and manpower values printed on the map. To this is added the money value of any domestic trade with Great Britain. Minor free state do not trade with America. This money and manpower is used exclusively for purchases and maintenance of that minor's forces. Any wastage is lost. The controlling major power may loan money (actually, give the money-minor free states never repay loans, and may not make loans of their own) to a minor free state. If the capital city of a minor free state is occupied by unbesieged enemy factors, it gains no money (including trade) or manpower.

[ 8.3 ]THE LENDING MONEY STEP: Major powers may now lend or give ("subsidies?") money to each other or to their own controlled minor free states. Minor free states may not loan money. Money may not be lent or given at any other time in the game. Money that changes hands is added or subtracted from the money obtained from other sources. Manpower may not be loaned or given away at any time. Between major powers, money may, only be loaned or given to allies.

[ 8.4 ] THE MANIPUILATION SFEP:

8.4.1 OCCUPIED HOME NATION CAPITAILS: If a major power home nation capital is enemy occupied and unbesieged during a Manipulation Step, the major power without a capital may not collect money (see 8.2.1.1) or carry out any previously set economic manipulation (see option 12.5) or set any new economic manipulation ("O" must be set). Instead, the major power's political status marker must be adjusted on the POLITICAL- STATUS DISPILAY on the Status Card to show the following drop in points:

8.4.1.1 LONDON OR PARIS OCCUPIED: "-3" political points.

8.4.1.2 BERLIN, CONS-RANTINOPILE OR VIENNA OCCUPIED: "-2" political points.

8.4.1.3 MADRID, MOSCOW OR ST PETERSBURG OCCUPIED: "-1" political point. For Russia, this is "-1" political point per capital (Moscow and/or St. Petersburg) occupied.

8.4.2 ECONOMIC MANIPULATION (OPTIONAL): If 8.4.1does not apply, see option 12.5 for information on using economic manipulation during this step.

8.4.3 RETURNING REMOVED LEADERS: At the end of a Manipulation Step, determine if a removed leader (removed as a result of peace condition C.6) can be returned to play (or drop political points at this time to ensure the return during the next Reinforcement Phase-see 10.6.4).

[ 8.5 ] MONEY AND MANPOWER EXPENDITURE STEP: Money and manpower are used to pay expenses and for building/recruiting new ships and/or army (regular infantry and cavalry, militia, guard and/or artillery) factors. Minor free states pay their own maintenance, at the same rates. If the minor free state cannot pay, the major power controlling the minor free state must pay. Money should be expended in the order that expenses are listed below. Any major power that becomes "bankrupt" during 8.5.1 or 8.5.2 loses "-3" political points (immediately adjust the major power's political status marker on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY)

8.5.1 MAINTENANCE: These represent the expense of counters already on the map. If there is insufficient money for the maintenance of all counters in 8.5.1, the major power pays all available money and becomes bankrupt. This has no effect on the counters on the map.

8.5.1.1 CORPS MAINTENANCE: For each corps of any type and at any location a major power has on the map (not including minor free state corps, which are paid for separately) it expends one money point in maintenance.

8.5.1.2 FLEET MAINTENANCE: It costs various amounts to maintain fleets; one money point for each fleet located in a port or blockade box and 5 money points for each fleet located in a sea area.

8.5.1.3 DEPOT MAINTENANCE: For each of its depots on the map a major power expends one money point in maintenance.

8.5.2 FORMAL DEBTS: Major powers now pay off any "formal" debts that is, those required through peace terms (see peace terms B. 3, C. 3 and C. 7). If there is insufficient money for this the major power pays what there is and becomes bankrupt (if not already so) and the remainder of the debt still exists as a formal debt. Players may now also choose, but are not obliged, to pay any informal debts.

8.5.3 EXPENDITURE ON FORCES: Major powers with money left may spend it on army factor or ship purchases (see the PURCHASE / COST CHART on the Game Card). For example, an infantry factor could be purchased by using three money and two manpower points.

8.5.3.1: Minor free states make separate purchases using their own money and manpower.

8.5.3.2: Any excess manpower is lost (except for Prussia, which may save manpower, though its controlled minor free states may not).

8.5.3.3: The purchase of army factors and ships and their date of arrival on the map as reinforcements should be recorded on a separate piece of paper or on copies of the REINFORCEMENT RECORD of sides two of the National Cards.

8.5.3.4: Neither the Turkish major power nor minor free states may build militia infantry. Insurrection, feudal troops, guerillas, cossacks or freikorps are not build in this step (see 10.1.1.1, 10.1.2.1, 10.1.3.1 and 10.1.4.2). Turkey may not build any guard factors and only France and Russia may build artillery factors.

8.5.3.5: All ships and factors purchased during this step are placed on the map as reinforcements during the Reinforcement Phase(s) after the required number of months have passed (based on the "Time" column on the PURCHASE/COST CHART on the Game Card) following the purchase of the factors. For example, an infantry factor (which requires three months to build) purchased during the March, 1806 Money and Manpower Expenditure Step is placed on the map during the June, 1806 Reinforcement Phase.

8.5.4 EXPENDITURE ON NEW CORPS AND FLEET COUNTERS: Major powers and their controlled minor free states may purchase fleet and corps counters not currently on the map by paying one money point per counter. These counters must be placed on the board within the next three months (the next quarter) or they must be again purchased on another Economic Phase before they can be placed on the map. Turkish feudal, Austrian insurrection and the Austrian Tyrol corps that are not on the map at this time do not have to be purchased. Only _available_ (currently off the map) fleet and corps counters may be purchased as "new" counters. Counters currently on the mapboard may _not_ be purchased to be available for immediate return to play as "new" counters should they be eliminated.

8.5.5 SURPLUS MINOR FREE STATE MONEY OR MANPOWER: Any remaining unused money or manpower points belonging to minor free states are lost.

8.5.6 MILITIA CONVERSION (OPTIONAL): If option 12.1.1 is used, militia to be converted is removed from the map and paid for during this step.

8.5.7 SURPLUS MAJOR POWER MONEY OR MANPOWER: Any remaining money points belonging to a major power are available for use to meet any of that major power's expenses (ie., building depots, using depot supply, etc.-this also includes these expenses for controlled free states and/or supplying allied corps) during future months. Prussian manpower points can also be saved-those of other major powers are lost if not used.

[ 8.6 ] THE POLITICAL STATUS ADJUSTMENT STEP: In this step, each player checks the box on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card containing his political status marker and gains or loses the political points specified by the value of the large political status adjustment ("PSA") number in the box. Where this is a positive number, this is a political points gain (move the marker to the right); where the number is negative, this is a political points loss (move the marker to the left). The political status marker is moved by the indicated number of boxes in the indicated direction. Players may not transfer political points to one another.

[ 8.7 ] THE CIVIL DISORDER STEP: If, during any Economic Phase, a major power can collect no home nation manpower, that major power goes into "civil disorder" and that major power is permanently out of the game and all of its home nation forces are permanently eliminated from the map.

8.7.1: All conquered minor countries of the major power undergoing civil disorder pass to the control of the major power occupying the major power's capital.

8.7.2: Controlled minor free states of the major power undergoing civil disorder become neutral if no enemy forces control their capital. If a capital is controlled, their control passes to the major power occupying their capital.

8.7.3: Each of that major power's home nation provinces are ceded to the major power controlling the provincial capital. EXCEPTION: Where no major power controls the provincial capital, that province passes to the major power controlling the national capital. These provinces are now all considered to be ceded provinces.

8.7.4: If the forces of two or more major powers are placed to dispute claims to territory arising from civil disorder (ie., mixed forces occupy a capital city), the involved major powers may decide on control in any mutually agreeable manner, or, if unable to agree, may use competitive die rolls to determine the new controlling major power (the modifiers from 4.6.2 apply to these die rolls for disputed minor countries).

8.7.5: Each major power at war with the major power undergoing civil disorder gains 5 political points, the same as if the major power in civil disorder had surrendered unconditionally.

[ 8.8 ] THE CEDING STEP: Each player secretly writes down what controlled minor country or ceded province he wishes to "cede" (change control) to another major power. When such territories are ceded as a result of a peace settlement rather than of an player agreement, the territory is instead ceded at the moment peace is declared.

8.8.1: Unceded home nation provinces may not be ceded at this time. They may only be ceded as part of a formal (conditional or unconditional surrender) peace settlement.

8.8.2: Territory ceded during this step may only be ceded to allies. If desired, a major power may cede one individual district of a multidistrict minor countries instead of ceding the entire minor country (this still costs a political point). During any one Ceding Step no individual major power may cede more than one minor country, minor country district or ceded province

8.8.3: A territory may not be ceded while it contains any forces of a major power at war with the controlling major power or, in the case of a minor country, separately at-war with that minor country, unless it is ceded to that major power with forces inside that territory.

8.8.4: Ceding a territory during this step costs the ceding major power one political point (still only one regardless of the number of districts in a minor country). Record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card.

8.8.5: When a minor free state is ceded, the new controlling major power may accept it and all its current forces as a free state or immediately remove its forces (army factors are eliminated, ships are recorded for possible later use as in 10.2.1.1) and change it to a (add a conquered control flag) conquered minor country.

8.8.6: A ceded province that is ceded back to its original home nation becomes an unceded province again. A ceded province that is ceded to any other major power remain a ceded province

[ 8.9 ] THE NEW POLITICAL COMBINATIONS STEP (OPTOIONAL): Skip this step if options 11.1 through 11.6 and/or 11.8 are not used. Otherwise, new political combinations, additions to these combinations, component parts going neutral and/or changes in dominant status are determined and announced during this step.

[ 8.10 ] THE LEVY STEP: New cossack and/or freikorps counters are placed on the map, if eligible (see 10.1.2.1), excess cossacks are removed from the map (see 10.1.2.1.1) and (in December Economic Phases only) feudal and insurrection corps are brought up to full strength (see 10.1.3.1 and 10.1.4.3).

[ 8.11 ] THE UMP CONTROL STEP: This step is used only at the end of December Turns in campaign games with less than seven players (see 14.3) to determine who runs the UMPS.

9.0 THE TIME RECORD PHASE

During this phase, the Turn markers are advanced to show the start of a new month. The "month" marker is advanced every month and the "year" marker is advanced whenever the "month" marker is moved into the "JAN" box.

[ 9.1 ] WINTER: The months of January, February and December are "winter" months and the ice lines printed on the map -apply.

[ 9.2 ] WINTER ZONE: All areas on the map are in the "winter zone" (ie., all winter rules apply) except for those in the southern portion of the map, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Tripolitania, Cyrenica, Egypt, Palestine, Corfu, Cyprus, Rhodes, Crete, Malta and Majorca.

 

10.0 MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL RULES

This section covers rules that apply in various phases and steps and so do not fit into the sequence of play format of the rules covered so far.

[ 10.1 ] IRREGULAR FORCES: These are special types of army forces that require some special rules.

10.1.1 GUERILLAS: Guerillas are special land forces available to Spain when invaded by an enemy.

10.1.1.1 CREATING GUERILLA FACTORS: Guerilla counters of the appropriate number of factors are placed on the map under the following conditions:

10.1.1.1.1: Whenever Spain loses a field or limited field combat involving a Spanish corps inside an unceded Spanish home nation province, one guerilla factor is created in that area as soon as the combat is ended.

10.1.1.1.2: For every unceded Spanish province containing an unbesieged enemy corps and/or garrison during the Spanish Guerilla Step, a die is rolled. For every point the die is lower than that province's guerilla value (printed on the map in parenthesis next to Spanish provincial tax/manpower values) one guerilla factor is placed in an area in that province.

10.1.1.2 ANTI-GUERILLA OPERATIONS: A major power (major powers using combined movement are treated as one major power for this purpose) at war with Spain may mount an "anti-guerilla operation" during its Guerilla Step in each Spanish province occupied by one or more of its corps that did not participate in any type of land combats during that major power's Land Combat Step and is not besieged or a besieger. The player rolls a die for each province. This die roll is modified by "+1" if the major power has two or more corps available for an anti-guerilla operation in a province. If the result is higher than the province's guerilla value, all unbesieged guerilla factors in any areas of that province are eliminated. Note that if several different major powers had corps in the same Spanish province, each could do this during that major power's Guerilla Step.

10.1.1.3 USING GUERILLAS: Guerillas have a morale value of "1.0" They may be used as part or all of city garrisons but may not be used to garrison depots. They may attack if the controlling player chooses to use some or all of the guerilla factors present in an area, but may not be attacked using the usual combat procedures unless besieged in a city.

10.1.1.3.1: Guerillas are not compelled to attack or defend when occupying an area containing enemy forces.

10.1.1.3.2: Guerillas may block supply lines but need no supply themselves unless besieged.

10.1.1.3.3: Guerillas may besiege cities only in conjunction with friendly corps.

10.1.1.3.4: Guerillas may be moved during Spanish Land Movement Steps only into one adjacent area (regardless of terrain) each Turn, if they are moved at all. They may never leave Spain's original home nation borders.

10.1.1.3.5: Guerillas can be ignored for movement purposes by enemy forces.

10.1.1.4 GUERILLA REMOVAL: If there are no enemy factors inside any unceded Spanish home nation province during a Spanish Guerilla Step, all guerilla factors are removed from the board.

10.1.2 COSSACKS AND FREIKORPS: Each cossack or freikorps counter represents one army factor. This factor is a cavalry factor for all purposes and has morale value of "1.0" In scenarios, they are placed as reinforcements when directed by the scenario instructions.

10.1.2.1 * CREATION OF COSSACKS AND FREIKORPS: New cossack and freikorps counters, if all allowable counters are not already on the map, may be placed on the map during a Levy Step.

10.1.2.1.1 Cossack Placement: One cossack counter is placed in any Russian-controlled "cossack province" (a cossack province has a "C" in parenthesis next to the province name on the map), so long as there would then be no more cossack counters on the map than there are Russian-controlled cossack provinces. EXCEPTION: If an enemy corps is inside the Russian home nation, even if besieged, then there may be up to two cossacks on the map for each Russian-controlled cossack province. Any excess is removed by the Russian player during a Levy Step when enemy corps are no longer inside Russia.

10.1.2.1.2 Freikorps Placement: A new Austrian freikorps counter is placed in the Vienna area and a new Prussian freikorps counter is placed in the Berlin area, if those areas are under their own home nation control and the cities are unbesieged. Freikorps are only available after certain dates. The Austrian freikorps is available starting in the March, 1809 Economic Phase and the Prussian freikorps is available starting in the March, 1813 Economic Phase.

10.1.2.2 USING COSSACKS AND FREIKORIPS: Cossacks and freikorps have five movement points and may not be forced marched. They may move through enemy forces and may be moved through by enemy forces, without being required to stop. They may not be transported by fleets. Cossacks may move anywhere they can reach and are allowed by the rules, but freikorps may operate only within their home nation's original border and in areas currently controlled by their major power.

10.1.2.2.1: Cossacks and freikorps block enemy supply but do not need to be supplied themselves unless besieged.

10.1.2.2.2: When a cossack or freikorps ends its movement in an area containing enemy field forces it must initiate an attack.

10. 1.2.2.3: When unbesieged cossack and/or freikorps that are alone in an area and are themselves attacked, the controlling player(s) may, if desired, automatically retreat them before any combat occurs into any adjacent area not containing an unbesieged enemy corps. EXCEPTIONS: If attacked by a force containing at least one enemy corps with a cavalry symbol, cossacks and/or freikorps may only retreat before combat if their controlling player(s) rolls a "4" or less on one die (roll once for the cossacks, regardless of the number of cossack counters present). This system is also used when cossacks/freikorps are with corps attempting to withdraw (see 7.5.2.5.2.2). Opposing cossacks/freikorps must fight a trivial combat if alone (no other forces from either side) together in an area.

10.1.3 TURKISH FEUDAL TROOPS: Turkey differs from the other major powers in that it purchases army factors and ships only for the Janissary, Imperial Cavalry and Nizami-Cedid corps and fleets. Turkish feudal corps (infantry and cavalry) start the game at full strength in feudal infantry or cavalry factors.

10.1.3.1 RAISING FEUDAL FACTORS: All army factors in the feudal corps are raised in an annual "levy. " During the Levy Step of a December Economic Phase, the Turkish player may elect to bring any or all of the feudal corps up to full strength by removing them from any location (even if eliminated and/or off the map) to any area in the province of their origin (the province for which the feudal corps is named). This may not be done if that province contains an unbesieged enemy corps, if it is controlled by another major power or if the feudal corps in question is besieged.

10.1.3.2 STANDING DOWN FEUDAL CORPS: During the year the Turkish major power may "stand down" (ie., remove from the map) any or all feudal corps (feudal infantry and feudal cavalry) during Turkey's Land Movement Step without altering their army factor strengths. A feudal corps may not stand down if besieged.

10.1.3.3 RETURNING FEUDAL CORPS THAT STAND DOWN: Any feudal corps that stands down may be placed back on the map during any later Turkish Land Movement Step. 10.1.3.3.1: A feudal corps that stands down may only be placed back on the map in its home province if that home province does not contain an unbesieged enemy corps or is not controlled by another major power.

10.1.3.3.2: A corps may not move on the same Turn it is placed back on the map.

10.1.3.4 USING FEUDAL CORPS: Feudal corps perform like other corps except that they may neither detach, exchange, or absorb army factors.

10.1.3.5 FEUDAL CORPS PROVINCES: The Crimean, Podolian and Transylvanian feudal corps are available only if the province of the same name is ceded to Turkey. Feudal corps from any provinces ceded by Turkey to other major powers are lost while ceded-Turkey cannot use the feudal corps nor can it be used by the major power to which the province was ceded.

10.1.3.6 FEUDAL CORPS MAINTENANCE: Maintenance must be paid only for feudal corps actually on the map during a Money and Manpower Expenditure Step of an Economic Phase. Feudal corps not then on the map, even if placed during the following three months, do not have to be purchased.

10.1.4 AUSTRIAN INSURRECTION CORPS: The Austrian major power has two insurrection corps available.

10.1.4.1 PLACING INSURRECTION CORPS: Immediately after an enemy corps, cossack or freikorps has entered certain Austrian border provinces, the triggers the possible placement of the insurrection corps and the Austrian player may (if desired) place on-map either or both insurrection corps anywhere within that province, at their current strength. These border provinces are Illyria, Military Border, Transylvania and Hungary. These border provinces are not eligible for insurrection corps activation if the province is currently ceded.

10.1.4.1.1: If the corps are placed in the area containing the enemy corps, that enemy corps (but not cossack or freikorps) would have to cease its movement.

10.1.4.1.2: Insurrection corps need not be placed at the first opportunity and so could cut supply chains if corps, cossacks or freikorps later activate their placement by crossing a border into an eligible Austrian border province.

10.1.4.1.3: Insurrection corps may only move within these four border provinces, even if they are ceded (subject to access rules-see 10.3). If compelled to retreat out of these border provinces they must immediately stand down.

10.1.4.1.4: Insurrection corps may not move during the same Turn they are placed on the map.

10.1.4.2 USING INSURRECTION CORPS: In other respects insurrection corps are treated similarly to Turkish feudal corps-they may not detach, absorb or exchange factors; they may stand down during Austria's Land Movement Step unless besieged or as a result of a retreat (see 10.1.4.1.3). However, after standing down, they may not be placed on the map except by using the activation procedure in 10.1.4.1.

10.1.4.3 * RAISING INSURRECTION CORPS FACTORS: Insurrection corps are brought up to their full strength of 15 militia and 3 regular cavalry factors (even if off map), only during the Levy Step of the December Economic Phase, if not then besieged, so long as any one of the four border provinces is Austrian controlled and contains no unbesieged enemy corps. Unlike Turkish feudal corps, the factors in the insurrection corps are treated as normal Austrian militia and regular cavalry factors (although they may not be detached).

10.1.4.4 * INSURRECTION CORPS MAINTENANCE: Maintenance must be paid only for insurrection corps actually on the map during a Money and Manpower Expenditure Step. Insurrection corps not then on the map, even if placed during the following three months, do not have to be purchased.

10.1.5 THE AUSTRIAN TYROLEAN REVOLT CORPS: If a major power to which the Tyrol province has been ceded goes to war with Austria, the Austrian player may, during any Austrian Land Movement Step, place the Tyrol corps marker in any Tyrol area that does not contain an enemy corps. The Tyrol corps may not be moved during the same step in which it is placed on the map.

10.1.5.1 TYROL CORPS STRENGTH AND USE: The Tyrol corps has an initial strength of eight Austrian regular infantry factors and, once placed, can be used the same as any other Austrian corps, detaching and absorbing army factors, getting infantry factors as reinforcements, etc.

10.1.5.1.1 *: Maintenance must be paid for the corps during every Money and Manpower Expenditure Step that it is on the map.

10.1.5.1.2: If the corps counter is removed from the map for any reason, it cannot be placed on the map again for the remainder of the war that triggered its placement.

10.1.5.2 TYROL CORPS REMOVAL *: When peace is made between Austria and the major power that held (and may still hold) Tyrol province, the Tyrol corps and any infantry factors it may hold at that time is removed from the map. It may be introduced again, at its full strength of 8 infantry factors, if there is another, later war that again triggers its availability, etc.

[ 10.2 ] * MINOR COUNTRIES AND CEDED PROVINCES CONTROL:

10.2.1 THE CONQUEST OF MINOR COUNTRIES: A minor country is conquered by one month's unbesieged occupation of its capital. The old control flag is changed for a conquered control flag of the new controlling major power to show the new control during the Conquest Step.

10.2.1.1: When a minor country is conquered by a major power, the minor country's surviving land forces (except for Poland-see 11.1.3.3) are considered to be eliminated and removed from the map. Minor country fleets are removed, but remain at their current ship strength and the fleet and ships are available as soon as that minor country again becomes a minor free state. While off-map, no maintenance is paid and factors and ships may not be added.

10.2.1.2: A minor country conquest gains the conqueror one political point per district (see 10.4) and costs the major power from which the country was conquered one political point per district. Record on the POI-ITICAI- STATUS DISPI-AY on the Status Card.

10.2.1.3: If a major power is not at war with another major power when a minor country it has been selected to run captures army factors of that other major power, those army factors must be returned immediately when the minor country is conquered or the war lapses (see 4.4.6.1).

10.2.2 CONQUERING CEDED PROVINCES: A major power may conquer a ceded province (even if not originally owned by that major power) exactly as if it were a minor country, unless the original owner controls it again, in which case it again becomes an unceded province. An unceded province may never be conquered. A major power may cede provinces only as part of a formal (conditional or unconditional) peace (see peace terms B.7 and C.4). Conquest of a ceded province does not gain or lose political points.

[ 10.3 ] * FORCES IN OTHER COUNTRIES-ACCESS:

10.3.1 ACCESS: "Access" is one country permitting another country's forces to operate in the first country's territory. There may be limitations on this access.

10.3.1.1 MINOR COUNTRY ACCESS: Any major power may move forces and trace supply through a neutral minor country. A major power may not also build depots and/or occupy cities in a minor country unless that major power is at war with or controls that minor country.

10.3.1.2 MAJOR POWER ACCESS: A major power may only move through another major power's territory with that major power's permission (called "voluntary access") or, without permission, if at war with that major power or if peace condition C.5 applies.

10.3.1.2.1 General Access Rules: Once inside another's province or controlled minor country, the voluntary access permission to be there may not be rescinded (unless war between the major power's negates the agreements).

10.3.1.2.1.1: Other corps or forces may be denied entry, but those already there must be allowed to move, detach garrisons and place depots as desired within any conditions already set.

10.3.1.2.1.2: Forces may not be granted voluntary access to move through a major power's territory and then denied permission to return by the same route and under the same conditions.

10.3.1.2.1.3: Neutral forces that previously had access in territory that has changed control (i.e., due to reconquest or ceding) can be given voluntary access under any new conditions granted by the new controlling major power (unconditional access _must_ be given if peace condition C.5 applies between the involved major powers). If no access is given or available, the neutral forces must be handled as with force repatriation (see 4.4.6.2 and/or option 12.4).

10.3.1.2.2 Voluntary Access Limitations: Voluntary access permission might be limited by specifying only certain provinces through which movement is permitted. "Conditional access" is also possible (eg., access only if at war with a particular country, etc.). This is up to the players, who may wish to put the conditions in writing. The player having access must obey the conditions set. The player through whose territory access is desired may set any conditions (eg., whether the moving major power can leave garrisons, build depots, payment for the privilege, etc.).

10.3.1.2.3 Unconditional Access: Access gained as a peace condition (see C.S on the VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card) is "unconditional access" and no restrictions other than those in peace condition C.5 can be imposed.

10.3.2 CITY OCCUPATION: The nationality of a city garrison determines who controls the city for combat purposes, regardless of the major power formally controlling the province or minor country in which the city is located. For example, a Russian garrison in a French port city allows the Russian player to determine if the port's harbour defences are used against attacking fleets.

10.3.2.1: If a city has a garrison consisting of army factors from more than one major power, control is with the major power formally controlling the province or minor country. If no army factors of the major power formally controlling the province are present, control for combat purposes can be decided by mutual agreement among the players with army factors present or, if agreement is impossible, by competitive die rolls with no modifiers. If garrisons in the same city suddenly find themselves at war due to a declaration of war, _immediately_ determine city control by trivial combat between the hostile garrison forces.

10.3.2.2: If there is no garrison, the city is controlled by major power or neutral minor country which controls the territory in which the city is located-port cities without garrisons may not use their harbour defences.

10.3.3 NEUTRAL GARRISONS IN ENEMY TERRITORY: Neutral garrisons or portions of garrisons (army factors belonging to a major power not at war with any of the besieging corps) in a city belonging to an enemy of a besieging corps must surrender as soon as a siege of the city is announced. These surrendered army factors and corps are automatically "exchanged" and automatically returned to the map as reinforcements during the surrendered forces next Army Reinforcement Step.

10.3.4 FORCIBLE ACCESS: If a major power is denied voluntary access or denied desired access conditions, its land forces may still be moved into or through desired areas by using "forcible access," as follows:

10.3.4.1: Forcible access operates under the same restrictions as access through neutral minor countries (see 10.3.1.1).

10.3.4.2: A phasing major power loses one political point per Turn for _each_ major power's territories in which forcible access is used. _For example, during a Turn, French counters are moved through some Bavarian and Saxon areas using forcible access. France loses one political points if both these minor countries are controlled by Prussia, but loses two political points if Bavaria is Austrian-controlled and Saxony is Prussian-controlled_.

10.3.4.3: The major power controlling territory in which forcible access occurs may, if desired, _immediately_ declare war and lose the requisite political points for _each_ separate declaration on any or all of the major powers using forcible access in its territory, unless prevented by limitation in 4.2.2.1. This chance to declare war is repeated each time a counter using forcible access is moved. If war is declared, allies may be called as in 4.3.

[ 10.4 ] * MINOR COUNTRIES WITH DISTRICTS: Some minor countries are unusual in that they consist of two or more "districts " while most minor countries have only one district.

10.4.1 COUNTRY COMPOSITION: These minor countries have a "major" district (which gives its name to the whole minor power) and a "secondary" district. The minor country Denmark consists of the major district of Denmark (capital Copenhagen) and the secondary district of Norway (capital Christiana). Similarly, there is the major district of Sweden (capital Stockholm) and the secondary district of Finland (capital Abo). Others can occur if optional rules 11.4 and 11.7 are used.

10.4.2 DECLAIRATIONS OF WAR: Major powers may not separately declare war on a neutral secondary district while it is still part of the neutral combined minor country. for example, a declaration of war on Sweden is also considered a declaration of war on Finland (unless Finland has already been conquered). The cost in political points to declare war on neutral minor countries with more than one district is one political point per district.

10.4.3 CONTROL: Whoever is given control of, or conquers, the major district of one of these minor countries is also automatically given control of, or conquers, the secondary district with no need to independently conquer the. secondary district capital.

10.4.3.1: The control of a secondary district is not given to the controller of the major district if a secondary district is already controlled by a different major power.

10.4.3.2: It is possible for one major power to conquer a secondary district (by controlling its capital) while another major power controls the major district For example, one major power can conquer Norway, by controlling Christiana while another major power conquers Denmark (the district) by controlling Copenhagen. When this happens, Sweden is considered a separate minor country from Finland, Denmark is considered a separate minor country from Norway, etc. until a secondary district satisfies the conditions of returning to neutrality (eg., the controlling major power is in the Fiasco Zone of the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY-see 10.5.2). The secondary district does not in this case revert to neutrality but immediately reverts to the control of the major power controlling the major district or (if also neutral) to the control of the major district to again form a multi-district minor country. for example, Norway reverts to the control of the major power controlling Denmark (as part of the controlled -Danish free state), or, if Denmark is also neutral, Norway would again become a part of combined neutral Denmark minor country

10.4.4 CORPS AND FTEETS: The major power controlling the major districts of these minor countries controls their corps and fleets. For example, Finland and Norway have no corps and fleets and, when separate, these secondary districts must be treated as conquered minor countries. EXCEPTION: see option 11.7 for Naples and Sicily, if used. When a secondary district is a part of its combined minor free state its manpower and money values can be used to purchase that minor free state's ships and army factors. For example, when Norway is a province of Denmark its manpower and money values (all doubled-see 8.2.3) can be used to purchase Danish ships and army factors.

[ 10.5 ] THE POILITICAIL STATUS DISPIAY: Each major power has an initial starting position on this Status Card display as given in the campaign games. That position is altered by winning or losing combats, by gaining formal allies or breaking alliances, being surrendered to or surrendering, declaring war upon a country, becoming bankrupt, economic manipulation, by conquering a minor country or having one conquered from you or by being selected to run it, etc. See the POLITICAL POINTS CHART on the back of this rulebook and the appropriate rules sections to find the reasons for and the extent of these adjustments.

10.5.1 ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE: When political points are adjusted, all positive adjustments require the major power's political status marker to be moved that number of spaces along the display from left to right (the zone lines are contiguous eg., the right hand end of the Neutral Zone joins the left hand end of the Dominant Zone). Similarly, negative adjustments require the marker to be moved from right to left along the display. A major power's political status marker cannot be adjusted off either end of the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY, but remains at the end until adjusted away by gains or losses. If a major power would have been forced off the lower end of the display, then that major power must sue for peace during the next Peace Step with every major power at war with it (only a conditional surrender has to be accepted).

10.5.2 LOCATED IN THE INSTABILITY/FIASCO ZONES: When a Money and Manpower Collection Step of an Economic Phase finds a major power's political status marker in a box in the Instability or Fiasco Zones, a die may have to be rolled by that major power's controlling player. No die roll is necessary if there is no economic loss number in the box. If the roll is not greater than the economic loss number found in the political status marker's box then only half the available major power money and manpower values are collected by that major power (rounding fractions up) and its minor free states collect only their printed values, not the normal doubled amounts. The value of trade is unaffected. Other effects are:

10.5.2.1 BEILNIG IN THE INSTABILITY ZONE: If a major power commences the Minor Country Control Step of a Political Phase in the Instability Zone of the display, all of the conquered minor countries of that major power become neutral, unless there is an unbesieged corps of that major power in the minor country. EXCEPTIONS: see options 11.2.3.2, 11.5.3.2 and 11.6.3.2.

10.5.2.2 BEING IN THE FIASCO ZONE: If a major power commences a Minor Country Control Step in the Fiasco Zone all controlled minor countries of that major power will become neutral regardless of occupation attempts, including minor free states.

10.5.2.3 CHANGING CONTROL: If an enemy corps is located in the minor country and/or an enemy garrison is in the minor country at these times, the minor country does not become neutral but is transferred to the control of that enemy major power instead (resolve control by competitive die rolls -as in 8.7.4 if two or more different enemy major power forces occupy the minor country). Free states whose control is transferred become conquered minor countries. When a minor free state becomes neutral or its control changes, all of its forces are removed, but a note is kept of its current fleet strength (which will become available if the minor country later again becomes a free state). Garrison factors (NOT corps, freikorps, or cossacks in garrison) of the controlling major power MUST be immediately removed from the minor country following the honors of war rules (see 7.5.4.1.2.3.1--in this case, it can be done by Spanish and Turkish garrisons).

10.5.2.4 POLITICAL POINTS FOR CHANGED CONTROL: No political points are lost when a major power loses control of minor countries in this way. However, all major powers who have the control of a minor country (regardless of the number of districts) transferred to them gain a political point

10.5.3 STATUS MODIFIERS: The status modifiers at the side of the POLITICAI- STATUS DISPI-AY are the die roll modifiers used (in addition to any others) when dicing to determine who will, run a particular neutral minor country that has been attacked (see 4.6.2 and 4.6.3) or when using the Uncontrolled Major Power (UMP) rules (see 14.3). The status modifiers number next to the zone line a major power's political status marker occupies is used.

[ 10.6 ] LEADERS AND COMMANDERS: The leaders in the game represent historical personalities who held major commands during the Napoleonic Wars. All leaders, except NELSON, must always be stacked with a corps of that major power or controlled minor power when on the map. NELSON must always be stacked with a fleet(s) of the British major power or British-controlled minor country. A player may not voluntarily cause his leader to become unstacked. Where a leader becomes unstacked due to foraging losses or disbanding, the leader is removed from the board and is returned in any later Army Reinforcement Step (Naval Reinforcement Step for NELSON). Leaders do not need supply and, except for NELSON, may be transported on fleets only if stacked with a corps.

10.6.1 LEADERS WHO ARE COMMANDERS: The leader in charge of a force is called the "commander. " If no leader is present, the best corps intrinsic ratings (there intrinsic ratings reflect the abilities of the corps commanders) of the corps present is used. Fleets have no intrinsic ratings. These intrinsic strategic and tactical ratings can be found on the reverse of the counters and minor countries' intrinsic ratings are those of their controlling major power. If no corps is present, garrisons, cossacks and guerillas have an intrinsic tactical and strategic rating of zero. Note that Prussian strategic ratings differ in 1805-1809 from 1810 and later.

10.6.1.1 CHOOSING OR DETERMINING A COMMANDER: If there is only one leader present on a side at a combat, that leader automatically commands. Otherwise, the commander is determined as follows:

10.6.1.1.1 Commanders For Allied Armies: If several leaders are present on the same side at a combat then the leader commanding the whole army must be a leader of the major power with the greatest number of corps present. If there are equal greatest numbers, the major power providing the leader may be chosen by the controlling players by mutual agreement from among those major powers or by competitive unmodified die rolls.

10.6.1.1.2 Commanders Among Other Leaders: If there are several leaders from the one major power, the leader with the highest seniority rating is chosen. "A" is a senior rating to "B" is a senior rating to "C" is a senior rating to "D" If there is more than one leader of the same highest seniority rating then the controlling player may choose which leader to use.

10.6.1.1.3 Reinforcing Leaders Taking Command: If a reinforcing leader arrives during a combat, it takes command only if from the same major power as the present commander and has a higher seniority rating or if there is currently no leader.

10.6.1.2 COMMANDER USES: The commander chosen will be used for all purposes in combats and only that leader's strategic and tactical ratings will be used.

10.6.1.2.1 Tactical Maximum Ratings: Each leader has a "tactical maximum rating. " If commanding more corps than this rating, the leader's tactical rating is reduced by "-1", and if commanding more corps than twice this rating the leader's tactical rating is reduced by "-2". Regardless of the number of corps commanded, the tactical rating can never be modified to below zero. For example if Napoleon, with a tactical maximum rating of "6" and a tactical rating of "5", commands seven to twelve corps, the tactical rating is reduced from "5" to "4". If Napoleon commands thirteen or more corps, the tactical rating is reduced from "5" to "3". Corps included in an outflanking force are counted for determining a commander's tactical rating.

10.6.1.2.2 Tactical Ratings Comparisons: The opposing commanders' ratings (which may be modified if tactical maximum ratings are exceeded) are compared on the COMMANDER CHART on the Game Card, which gives a "0", "+1" or "-1" die roll modifier for attacker and defender in a combat round. The tactical rating is calculated round by round (ie., reinforcements may change the commanders' tactical ratings from round to round).

10.6.1.3 COMMANDERS FOR PUIRSUIT: For pursuits, the combat commander is not necessarily the leader used. Any leader with a cavalry leader symbol may be used to modify the pursuit (see 7.5.2.10.2) as long as at least one factor of that leader's nationality is pursuing.

10.6.2 LEADER MOVEMENT: Leaders may move by spending their entire movement with a corps (fleet for NELSON) with which they began the Land or Naval Movement Step. Alternatively, a leader may be retired from the map during the appropriate Reinforcement Step (unless in a besieged city-a besieged port city must also be blockaded to prevent a leader's retirement) and then placed with any unbesieged corps (fleet for NELSON) of its major power in any later appropriate Reinforcement Step.

10.6.3 LEADER CAPTURE: When all factors on a side or in a pinning force with which a leader is present are eliminated by combat that leader is captured by any major power on the opposing side of the owning player's choice. If a leader becomes unstacked through losses incurred during besieged supply, the leader is captured by the besieging major power of the owning player's choice. Captured leaders must be returned as an effect of peace (see 4.4.6.1) and may be returned earlier at the option of the capturing player, the leader being placed on the board in any later appropriate Reinforcement Steps.

10.6.4 * RETURNING LEADERS: When a leader is removed from the game under peace condition C. 6, that leader can only be returned to the game in one of two ways:

10.6.4.1: If the removed leader's major power ever occupies the Fiasco Zone on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card at the end of the Manipulation Step of an Economic Phase, the leader is eligible to be returned to the map for normal use during the next or any later Reinforcement Phase.

10.6.4.2: If the major power is not in the Fiasco Zone at the end of a Manipulation Step (see 8.4.3), the controlling player may, if desired, drop a number of political points equal to the total of the removed leader's strategic plus tactical ratings numbers (EXCEPTION: the NELSON leader, with no ratings numbers, can be returned for a drop of 10 political points). If this is done, the leader is eligible to be returned to the map for normal use during the next or any later Reinforcement Phase.

10.6.5 THE BERNADOTTE LEADER: The "BERNADOTTE" leader counter has two sides and is available as a French leader (use the French blue side of the counter) from 1805 to the August, 1810 Turn. At the start of the Army Reinforcement Step of the August, 1810 Turn, the French player must give this leader counter (even if besieged) to

the major power controlling Sweden (use the gray side of the counter from now on) 'The major power controlling Sweden may now place the counter on the map during this or any later Land Reinforcement Step. The BERNADOTTE leader counter is now a Swedish leader and can be used with any of the corps of the major power controlling Sweden (which could change if control of Sweden changes).

10.6.5.1: If BERNADOTTE was "killed" or France went into civil disorder prior to August, 1810, the BERNADOTTE leader counter does not become a Swedish leader.

10.6.5.2: If Sweden is or becomes neutral after BERNADOTTE becomes a Swedish leader, the BERNADOTTE leader is kept off the map and can be placed when the rest of the Swedish forces are placed.

[ 10.7 ] * DARDANELLES CONTROL: Normally, the major power controlling Constantinople controls access through the Dardanelles sea area (see 6.2.1.3 and 8.2.1.2.1.3 for results of control), but if Constantinople is besieged, no one controls access through the Dardanelles. Note that this makes it possible for any major powers to pass through the Dardanelles and also makes it possible for enemy fleets to enter the area to reach the Constantinople blockade box.

[ 10.8 ] SETTLING DISPUTES: Although it is pointed out in numerous places throughout the rules that major powers with conflicting and equal claims may settle their disputes through mutual agreement or through competitive die, rolls (sometimes modified), other cases can arise that are not mentioned elsewhere. In all these cases, if a mutual agreement cannot be reached, let unmodified competitive die rolls decide. for example, if leaders or army factors are captured by mixed forces controlled by more than one major power, the control over the "prisoners " can be decided by mutual agreement or, if agreement cannot be reached, by competitive die rolls (roll for each factor or leader over which there is a disagreement).

OPTIONAL RULES

The optional rules are just that, optional, and may be used or not used in any combinations desired by the players of the game. Their use is suggested only for experienced players of the game.

11.0 NEW POLITICAL COMBINATIONS

The Napoleonic Wars saw many changes in the map of Europe, some proving to be only temporary and others proving to be more permanent. These options permit players to recreate some of these changes by arranging new combinations of minor countries and/or ceded provinces to form new "super" minor free states and also permit the possibility that any major power can become dominant in Europe. In all cases, these changes are declared by the controlling player during the New Political Combinations Step of an Economic Phase (covers 11.l - 11.6 and 11.8).

[ 11.1 ] POLAND (GRAND DUCHY OF WARSAW: Poland, once one of Europe's great powers, had been dissolved, carved up and divided into separate provinces by Austria, Prussia and Russia in the 1790s. The Poles hoped to regain their independence and loyally supported Napoleon after he created the "Grand Duchy of Warsaw".

11.1.1 CREATING POLAND: If any (the Poles will accept anyone's help) major power controls two or more possible Polish (marked "P" next to the province names on the map) provinces including Masovia and no other major power holds the Polish loyalty marker, then the Polish free state may be declared by that major power with Warsaw as the Polish free state capital.

11.1.1.1 POLISH PROVINCES: The exact Polish ("P") provinces making up the Polish free state must be announced when the creation is declared. In the cases of Austria, Prussia or Russia, any of their own home nation provinces included as part of Poland are then considered to be ceded provinces that are part of Poland. Once established, a controlling major power may, if desired, add additional controlled "P" provinces to Poland during later New Political Combinations Steps.

11.1.1.2 MARKING CONTROL: The controlling major power places one of its own free state flags and the "Poland" political marker anywhere in Poland and takes and holds the Polish loyalty marker to indicate Polish loyalty.

11.1.2 USING POLAND: Once created, Poland is a normal minor free state of whatever size and total money and manpower values has been determined. The combined money and manpower values of its component provinces are doubled in value (as in any minor free state-see 8.2.3) and used for the usual purposes. Polish garrison infantry factors may be placed anywhere within Polish territory.

11.1.3 CONQUERING THE POLISH FREE STATE: The Polish minor free state may only be conquered by the unbesieged occupation of Warsaw for a month (as per 10.2), after which the occupying major power places a conquered flag in each province that defines Poland and the Poland political marker and the previous major power's state are removed.

11.1.3.1. Once Poland is conquered, the provinces that were part of the Polish free state are now considered unceded provinces, if now controlled by their home nation major power, or ceded provinces, if controlled by another major power.

11.1.3.2: Polish provinces other than Masovia may be independently conquered and treated as in 10.2.2. If a Polish free state becomes neutral, it is treated as a multi-district minor country (see 10.4-Masovia is the major district) except that declarations of war and assuming control are both worth only one political point, regardless of the number of component provinces. With a neutral Poland, no one holds the Polish loyalty marker.

11.1.3.3: If, when Poland is conquered, there are still remaining Polish forces, Poland may not be declared a minor free state by the new conquering major power. If any Polish forces remain, they remain in the control of the original controlling major power until all Polish army factors are lost or any type of peace is made between the major power that conquered Poland and the major power holding the Polish loyalty marker, at which time the former controlling-major power relinquishes control of the Polish loyalty marker. The conquering major power may then, if desired, again declare Poland a minor free state (see 11.1.1) during any later New Political Combination Step.

11.1.4 CEDING POLAND: If Poland is ceded, either voluntarily, or as a peace condition, it must be ceded as a unit. The controlling player may not separate individual Polish provinces for individual ceding or other purposes. When ceded, the Poland political marker, Polish loyalty marker and any Polish forces are also ceded and the accompanying free state flag is changed to show the new controlling major power. If desired, the new controlling player may choose to handle Poland as in 8.8.5, changing it to conquered status, although, in this case, the component provinces become ceded and/or unceded provinces, depending on the controlling major power.

11.1.5 POLITICAL POINTS: Poland is worth "1" point to create or to conquer (capture Warsaw). The loss of a controlled Poland costs "1" political point, whether to conquest or by ceding.

[ 11.2 ] THE KINGDOM OF ITALY: Italy had been divided numerous small countries since the middle ages. Napoleon created the Kingdom of Italy (actually encompassing only northern Italy) to solidify support among the Italians.

11.2.1 CREATING THE KINGDOM OF ITALY: The Kingdom of Italy can be created only by Austria, France or Spain. The Kingdom of Italy consists of the minor countries of Lombardy, Papacy and Venetia and the province of Illyria. If Austria creates the kingdom, Illyria province, although not actually ceded, is then considered to be part of the Kingdom of Italy and its money and manpower values are not counted for Austrian money and manpower. If Austria, France or Spain controls all four of these, then the Kingdom of Italy may be declared by the controlling major power.

11.2.1.1: Control is marked by placing a controlling major power free state flag and the "K. of Italy" political marker anywhere in the kingdom.

11.2.1.2: Whenever the major power controlling the Kingdom of Italy regains control of territory that could be part of the kingdom, this territory must be added to the Kingdom of Italy during the next New Political Combinations Step.

11.2.2 USING THE KINGDOM OF ITALY: Once created, the Kingdom of Italy is generally treated as a normal minor free state. The combined money and manpower of its component parts are doubled (as in any minor free state-see 8.2.3) in value and used in any desired way fox the usual purposes. The combined money and manpower may be used to purchase army and/or ship factors for the corps, garrisons or fleets of either Lombardy or Venetia. Garrison factors from the Kingdom of Italy may be placed anywhere within its territory. In addition:

11.2.2.1: If France controls the Kingdom of Italy, the Lombardy and Venetian corps have a movement allowance of "4". If this option is used, these corps do not get a "4" movement allowance simply for being French-controlled (see 7.3.1.1)-the Kingdom of Italy must be created for their movement allowance to be increased.

11.2.2.2: When the Kingdom of Italy is created the controlling major power gets the Venetia fleet counter and its current number of ships. This fleet and ships are not available to the major power controlling Venetia unless that major power also controls the Kingdom of Italy.

11.2.3 CONQUERING THE KINGDOM OF ITALY: The component parts of the Kingdom of Italy are still treated as separate minor free states and a ceded province for purposes of conquering it. However, as long as the Kingdom of Italy's controlling major power still controls at least one component minor country with corps, the Kingdom of Italy still exists (consisting of whatever territory remains).

11.2.3.1: If the last component minor country with corps of the Kingdom of Italy goes neutral, is ceded or is conquered the kingdom will cease to exist and will become separate parts (either neutral or under control, as the case may be) again. If not otherwise controlled, Illyria province returns to Austrian control or, if Austria no longer exists, Illyria goes to the major power controlling Austria province. The Kingdom of Italy political marker and the previous major power's free state flag are removed when the kingdom goes neutral or ceases to exist and/or is ceded.

11.2.3.2: Rule 10.5.2.2 is modified when applying to the minor country components in the Kingdom of Italy. Instead of the component minor countries automatically going neutral during a Minor Country Control Step, they only need to be checked during a New Political Combinations Step. If in the Fiasco Zone during a New Political Combinations Step, one die is rolled for each of the component minor countries. Failure to roll higher than the economic loss number means that the component minor country goes neutral (or changes control-see 10.5.2.3); otherwise there is no effect. NOTE: No die rolls are made if there is no economic loss number in the Fiasco, Zone box or for Illyria province.

11.2.4 CEDING THE KINGDOM OF ITALY: If the Kingdom of Italy 's territories are ceded, either voluntarily or as a peace condition, they are ceded as separate minor countries and/or a province. The political marker is never ceded, only removed if the conditions for the kingdom's existence end-if the kingdom is gone, then it must be recreated as in 11.2.1 to exist again.

11.2.5 POLITICAL POINTS: The Kingdom of Italy is worth one political point to create. Individually gaining or losing parts of it gain/cost the usual political points for conquering/losing minor countries/provinces (see 10.2.1.2 and 10.2.2).

[ 11.3 ] * THE KINGDOM OF WESTPHALIA: The numerous small states of north western Germany were tempting prizes to the major powers that vied for their control. Napoleon created the Kingdom of Westphalia to consolidate his control in this area.

11.3.1 CREATING THE KINGDOM OF WESTPHALIA: The Kingdom of Westphalia can be created only by France or Prussia. The Kingdom of Westphalia consists of the minor countries of Hanover and Hesse and the province of Magdeburg, If Prussia creates the kingdom, Magdeburg province, although not actually ceded, is then considered to be part of the Kingdom of Westphalia and its money and manpower values are not counted for Prussian money and manpower. If France or Prussia controls all three of these, then the Kingdom of Westphalia may be declared by the controlling major power.

11.3.1.1: Control is marked by placing a controlling major power free state flag and the "K. of Westphalia. ", political marker anywhere in the kingdom.

11.3.1.2: Whenever the major power controlling the Kingdom of Westphalia gains control of territory that could be part of the kingdom, this territory must be added to the Kingdom of Westphalia during the next New Political Combinations Step.

11.3.2 USING THE KINGDOM OF WESTPHALIA: Once created, the Kingdom of Westphalia is generally treated as a normal minor free state. The combined money and manpower of its component parts are doubled in value (as in any minor free state-see 8.2.3) and used in any desired manner for the usual purposes. In addition:

11.3.2.1: If France controls the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Hanover and Hesse corps have a movement allowance of "4". If this option is used, these corps do not get a "4" movement allowance simply for being French-controlled (see 7.3.1.1)-the Kingdom of Westphalia must be created for their movement allowance to be increased (NOTE: movement is also increased if the Kingdom of Westphalia is not created, but Hanover and/or Hesse are incorporated as part of the Confederation of the Rhine - see 11.5.2.1).

11.3.2.2: The money from Magdeburg province can be used for any purpose, but its manpower can be used only to purchase Hanoverian infantry and cavalry factors.

11.3.2.3: Only Hessian infantry can be used as minor country garrisons within Hesse. Only Hanoverian infantry can be used as

minor country garrisons within Hanover and Magdeburg. If Hanover is _not_ part of the Kingdom of Westphalia, Hanoverian army factors are not available for use by the Kingdom of Westphalia.

11.3.3 CONQUERING THE KINGDOM OF WESTPHALIA: The component parts of the Kingdom of Westphalia are still treated as separate minor free states and a ceded province for purposes of conquering it. However, as long as the Kingdom of Westphalia's controlling major power still controls at least one component minor country with corps, the Kingdom of Westphalia still exists (consisting of whatever territory remains)

11.3.3.1: If the last component minor country with corps of the Kingdom of Westphalia goes neutral, is ceded or is conquered, the kingdom will cease to exist and will become separate parts (either neutral or under control, as the case may be) again. If not otherwise controlled, Magdeburg province returns to Prussian control or, if Prussia no longer exists, Magdeburg goes to the major power controlling Brandenburg province. The Kingdom of Westphalia political marker and the previous major power's free state flag are removed when the kingdom goes neutral or ceases to exist and/or is ceded.

11.3.3.2: Rule 10.5.2.2 is modified when applying to the minor country components in the Kingdom of Westphalia. Instead of the component minor countries automatically going neutral during a Minor Country Control Step, they only need to be checked during a New Political Combinations Step. If in the Fiasco Zone during a New Political Combinations Step, one die is rolled for each of the component minor countries. Failure to roll higher than the economic, loss number means that the component minor country goes neutral (or changes control-see 10.5.2.3); otherwise there is no effect. NOTE: No die rolls are made if there is no economic loss number in the Fiasco Zone box or for Magdeburg province.

11.3.4 CEDING THE KINGDOM OF WESTPHALIA: If the Kingdom of Westphalia's territories are ceded, either voluntarily or as a peace condition, they are ceded as separate minor countries and/or a province. The political marker is never ceded, only removed if the conditions for the kingdom's existence end-if the kingdom is gone, then it must be recreated as in 11.3.1 to exist again.

11.3.5 POLITICAL POINTS: The Kingdom of Westphalia is worth one political point to, create. Individually gaining or losing of it gain/cost the usual political points for conquering/losing parts minor countries/provinces (see 10.2.1.2 and 10.2.2).

[ 11.4 ] THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA: The King of Bavaria was an ambitious fellow and Napoleon gave him the Tyrol province to cement their relations. The Tyrolians detested their Bavarian overlords and all-in-all this was one of Napoleon's least successful creations.

11.4.1 CREATING THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA: The Kingdom of Bavaria can be created by France or Prussia. The Kingdom of Bavaria consists of the minor country of Bavaria and the province of Tyrol. If France or Prussia controls both of these, then the Kingdom of Bavaria may be declared by the controlling major power. Control is marked by placing a controlling major power free state flag and the "K. of Bavaria" political marker anywhere in the kingdom.

11.4.2 USING THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA: Once created, the Kingdom of Bavaria is generally treated as a normal minor free state. The combined money and manpower of its component parts are doubled (as in any minor free state-see 8.2.3) in value and used in any desired way for the usual purposes. The combined money and manpower may be used to purchase Bavarian army factors. Garrison factors from the Kingdom. of Bavaria may be placed anywhere within Bavaria and/ or the Tyrol. In addition, if France controls the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Bavarian corps has a movement allowance of "4". If this option is used, this corps does not get a "4" movement allowance simply for being French controlled (see 7.3.1.1)-the Kingdom of Bavaria must be created for their movement allowance to be increased (NOTE: movement is also increased if the Kingdom of Bavaria is not created, but Bavaria is incorporated as part of the Confederation of the Rhine see 11.5.2.1).

11.4.3 CONQUERING THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA: The component parts of the Kingdom of Bavaria are treated much the same (the difference being what Austria does with Tyrol province) as a multi-district minor country (see.10.4) with the major district being Bavaria (capital Munich) and the minor district being Tyrol (capital Salzburg).

11.4.3.1: If the Tyrol is conquered separately by Austria, it becomes an unceded province of Austria and if conquered by any other major power that does not control Bavaria, it becomes a ceded province under their control.

11.4.3.2: If Austria conquers the Kingdom of Bavaria by capturing Munich. Tyrol is immediately reincorporated into Austria as an unceded province, and the Kingdom of Bavaria ceases to exist (remove the political marker) and if this is done by any other major power, Tyrol becomes a ceded province and Bavaria becomes a conquered minor country under that major power's control-the Kingdom of Bavaria ceases to exist.

11.4.3.3: If the Kingdom of Bavaria goes neutral, the Kingdom of Bavaria political marker remains on the map and is treated as a multi-district neutral minor country for determining political points for declaring war (see 4,2.1.2) and assuming control (see 4.6.3.1), but is conquered as in 11.4.3.2.

11.4.3.4: The Kingdom of Bavaria political marker is removed whenever Tyrol province is under different control than Bavaria's.

11.4.4 CEDING THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA: If the Kingdom of Bavaria's two districts are ceded, either voluntarily or as a peace condition, they are ceded together as one minor country, along with the political marker. The controlling major power may not break up the kingdom to cede individual districts or for other purposes. EXCEPTION. If ceded to Austria, handle as in 11.4.3.2.

11.4.5 POLITICAL POINTS: The Kingdom of Bavaria is worth one political point to create and costs one political point to cede. Individually gaining or losing parts of it gains/costs the usual political points for conquering/losing minor countries/provinces (see 10.2.1.2 and 10.2.2-ie., "+1" political point to conquer Bavaria, political point to have Bavaria conquered and no political points to separately conquer or lose Tyrol province).

[ 11.5 ] * THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE: Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine to further consolidate his position in Germany. Austria, through their control of the Holy Roman Empire had previously had the dominant position in Germany, but this dominance had been slipping for centuries.

11.5.1 CREATING THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE: The Confederation of the Rhine can be created only by Austria, France or Prussia. The Confederation of the Rhine consists of the minor countries of Hanover and Hesse (which may, also be part of the Kingdom of Westphalia), Baden, Bavaria, Saxon and Wurttemburg, all of which have corps the minor countries Berg, Duchies, Kleves and Mecklenburg, which do not have corps, and the provinces of Magdeburg (which may also be part of the Kingdom of Westphalia) and Tyrol (which may also be part of the Kingdom of Bavaria). If Austria or Prussia creates the confederation, their own provinces (Tyrol for Austria, Magdeburg for Prussia), although not actually ceded, are considered to be part of the Confederation of the Rhine and no longer provide money and manpower for the home nation. If Austria, France or Prussia controls at least five of the six minor countries with corps plus any three other minor countries and/or provinces (all possible minor countries and/or provinces that the major power controls must be incorporated), then the Confederation of the Rhine may be declared by the controlling major power.

11.5.1.1: Control is marked by placing a controlling major power free state flag and the "C. of the Rhine " political marker anywhere in the confederation.

11.5.1.2: In order for Austria to create the Confederation of the Rhine (or, "Holy Roman Empire" in this case), peace condition C.8 may never have been applied against Austria, or, if it was applied, it must have been cancelled by Austria applying peace condition C. 9 to any and all major powers that had previously applied C.8 against Austria.

11.5.1.3: In order for France or Prussia to create the Confederation of the Rhine, at least one major power must have applied peace condition C.8 against Austria land not had this cancelled by Austria using peace condition C. 9 against them. NOTE: Historically, the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine somewhat predated the official end of the Holy Roman Empire, but the French victories at Ulm and Austerlitz had made Austria's bowing to Napoleon's demands on this matter inevitable.

11.5.1.4: Whenever the major power controlling the Confederation of the Rhine gains control of territory that could be part of the Confederation of the Rhine, -this territory must be added to the Confederation of the Rhine during the next, New Political Combinations Step.

11.5.1.5: The Confederation of the Rhine can never be created by one major power, even if all other requirements can be met, if the Confederation of the Rhine political marker is still on the map with another major power's free state flag.

11.5.2 USING THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE: Once created, the Confederation of the Rhine is generally treated as a normal minor free state. The money and manpower of its component parts are doubled in value and used for the usual purposes. in addition:

11.5.2.1: If France controls the Confederation of the Rhine, the Baden, Bavaria, Hanover, Hesse, Saxony and Wurttemburg corps have a movement allowance. of "4". If this option is used, these corps do not get a "4" movement allowance simply for being French-controlled (see 7.3.1.1)-the Confederation of the Rhine must be created for their movement allowance to be increased. EXCEPTIONS: If the Confederation of the Rhine is not created, some corps may still gat a "4" movement allowance if French controlled if options 11.3.2.1 and 11.4.2 apply.

11.5.2.2: The money from all minor countries and provinces can be used for any purpose, but manpower from minor countries and provinces without corps can be used only to purchase Hanoverian infantry and cavalry factors.

11.5.2.3: Only infantry of the appropriate minor country can be used as minor country garrisons within the minor countries with corps. Only Hanoverian infantry can be used as minor country garrisons within Hanover and the minor countries and provinces without corps. NOTE: Hanoverian and Bavarian infantry have the same morale value and, therefore, any "Hanoverian" infantry factors placed as garrison in Tyrol province are considered to be Bavarian infantry if the Kingdom of Bavaria is in existence. If Hanover and/or Bavaria are _not_ part of the Confederation of the Rhine, their army factors are not available for use by the Confederation of the Rhine.

11.5.3 CONQUERING THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE: The component parts of the Confederation of the Rhine are still treated as separate minor free states and ceded provinces for purposes of conquering it. However, as long as the Confederation of the Rhine's controlling major power still controls at least one component minor country with corps, the Confederation of the Rhine still exists (consisting of whatever territory remains).

11.5.3.1: If the last component minor country with corps of the confederation goes neutral, is ceded or is conquered, the confederation will cease to exist and become separate parts (either neutral or controlled, as the case may be) again. If not otherwise controlled and the Kingdom of Westphalia is not also in existence, Magdeburg province returns to Prussian control or, if Prussia no longer exists, to the major power controlling Brandenburg province. If not otherwise controlled and the Kingdom of Bavaria is not also in existence, Tyrol province returns to Austrian control or, if Austria no longer exists , to the major power controlling Austria province. The Confederation of the Rhine political marker and the previous major power's free state flag are removed when the confederation goes neutral or ceases to exist or and/or is ceded.

11.5.3.2: Rule 10.5.2.2 is modified when applying to the minor country components in the Confederation of the Rhine. Instead of the component minor countries automatically going neutral during a Minor Country Control Step, they only need to be checked during a New Political Combinations Step. If in the Fiasco Zone during a New Political Combinations Step, one die is rolled for each of the component minor countries. Failure to roll higher than the economic loss number means that the component minor country goes neutral (or changes control-see 10.5.2.3); otherwise there is no effect. NOTE: No die rolls are made if there is no economic loss number in The Fiasco Zone box or for Magdeburg or Tyrol provinces.

11.5.4 CEDING THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE: If the Confederation of the Rhine's territories are ceded, either voluntarily or as a peace condition, they are ceded as separate minor countries and/or provinces. The political marker is never ceded, only removed if the conditions for the confederation's existence end-if the confederation is gone, then it must be recreated as in 11.4.1 to exist again.

11.5.5 POLITICAL POINTS: The Confederation of the Rhine is worth two political points to create. Individually gaining or losing parts of it gain/cost the usual political points for conquering/losing minor countries/provinces (see 10.2.1.2 and 10.2.2).

[ 11.6 ] * THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: Definitely weakened, but not quite yet the "sick man of Europe" it would become later in the century, the Turks definitely dreamed of regaining control of their Islamic North African empire (although most of these nations wore still nominally under Turkish control, the real power was not there). France, Great Britain and Spain, in a different manner, also had ambitions in North Africa (they would definitely have called it by a different name, but "Ottoman Empire" is used for convenience).

11.6.1 CREATING THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: The Ottoman Empire can be created only by France, Great Britain, Spain or Turkey. The Ottoman Empire consists of the, minor countries of Algeria, Cyrenica, Egypt, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tripolitania and Tunisia. If France, Great Britain, Spain or Turkey controls any six of these (all possible minor countries that the major power controls must be incorporated), then the Ottoman Empire may be declared by the controlling major power.

11.6.1.1: Control is marked by placing a controlling major power free state flag and the "Ottoman Empire" political marker anywhere in the area.

11.6.1.2: Whenever the major power controlling the Ottoman Empire gains control of territory that could be part of the empire, this territory must be added to the Ottoman Empire during the next New Political Combinations Step.

11.6.1.3: The Ottoman Empire can never be created by one major power, even if all other requirements can be met, if the Ottoman Empire political marker is still on the map with another major power's free state flag.

11.6.2 USING THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: Once created, the Ottoman Empire is generally treated as a normal minor free state. The combined money and manpower of its component parts are doubled (as in any minor free state-see 8.2.3) in value and used in any desired way for the usual purposes. The combined money and manpower may be used to purchase army factors for the corps or garrisons of any of the component minor countries with corps. Garrison factors from the Ottoman Empire may be placed anywhere within its territory. In addition, there are extra advantages for a Turkish-controlled Ottoman Empire, as follows:

11.6.2.1 IMPROVED OTTOMAN MORALE: If Turkey controls the Ottoman Empire, the morale value of every Ottoman Empire corps becomes "2.0"for infantry and "3.0" for cavalry.

11.6.2.2 TRIBUTE: If Turkey controls the Ottoman Empire, at the conclusion of all December Money and Manpower Expenditure Steps, any unspent Ottoman Empire money points are added as "tribute" to Turkey's remaining money points (see 8.5.7) instead of being lost as in 8.5.5.

11.6.3 CONQUERING THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: The component parts of the Ottoman Empire are still treated as separate minor free states for purposes of conquering it. However, as long as the Ottoman Empire's controlling major power still controls at least one component minor country with corps, the Ottoman Empire still exists (consisting of whatever territory remains).

11.6.3.1: If the last component minor country with corps of the empire goes neutral, is ceded or is conquered the empire will cease to exist and become separate parts (either neutral or controlled, as the case may be) again. The Ottoman Empire political marker and the previous major power's free state flag are removed when the kingdom goes neutral or ceases to exist and/or is ceded.

11.6.3.2: Rule 10.5.2.2 is modified when applying to the minor country components in the Ottoman Empire. Instead of the component minor countries automatically going neutral during a Minor Country Control Step, they only need to be checked during a New Political Combinations Step. If in the Fiasco Zone during a New Political Combinations Step, one die is rolled for each of the component minor countries. Failure to roll higher than the economic loss -number means that the component minor country goes neutral (or changes control-see 10.5.2.3); otherwise there is no effect. NOTE: No die rolls are made if there is no economic loss number in the Fiasco Zone box.

11.6.4 CEDING THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: If the Ottoman Empire's territories are ceded, either voluntarily or as a peace condition, they are ceded as separate minor countries. The political marker is never ceded, only removed if the control of all the empire's territories goes to another major power or powers-if the empire is gone, then it must be recreated as in 11.2.1 to exist again.

11.6.5 POLITICAL POINTS: The Ottoman Empire is worth two political point to create. Individually gaining or losing parts of it gain/cost the usual political points for conquering/losing minor countries (see 10.2.1.2).

[ 11.7 ] * THE KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES: When this option is used, the minor countries of Naples and Sicily should be considered to be one multi-district minor country called the "Kingdom of the Two Sicilies" (it is like this in campaign games starting in 1805). Naples is the major district and Sicily is the secondary district, but there are some special rules that apply if this option is used:

11.7.1: If the two are controlled by different major powers the Naples corps are controlled by the major power controlling Naples and the Naples fleet is controlled by the major power controlling Sicily.

11.7.2: The money and manpower values of Naples and Sicily are combined and doubled (as in any minor free state-see 8.2.3) but, if separate minor free states controlled by different major powers the money and manpower values of each are not doubled.

[ 11.8 ] * ALTERNATE DOMINANT POWERS: In EMPIRES IN ARMS, as with the historical events portrayed, France and Great Britain have obvious and constant qualitative advantages over the other five major powers and, although anyone can still win, they are the "dominant" powers in the gate and the centers of diplomatic activity. For example, if Prussia does very well early in a campaign game, it is still the rather puny Prussia of the Napoleonic period in terms of army factor morale, with the addition of some minor country corps for help. It is certainly not the dangerous Prussia of Frederick the Great less than 50 years earlier or the dominant Prussia (the basis of modem Germany) of 50 years later and will have trouble maintaining any early gains. Every one of the major powers in the game has the capability to become a dominant European power and, during. the previous 200 years or during the next century, every one of them was or would be a dominant power. This option allows players, as the rulers of their respective major powers to alter the historical balance.

11.8.1 ACHEIVING OR LOSING DOMINANT POWER STATUS: In order for Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain or Turkey to become a dominant power, they must reach the New Political Combinations Step of an Economic Phase at peace with all other major powers and in control of certain territories. In order for France or Great Britain or any other major power that earlier achieved dominant power status to lose their dominant power status, they must reach the New Political Combinations Step of an Economic Phase at peace with all other major powers and not in control of the territories necessary to maintain their dominant power status. A France or Great Britain that earlier lost dominant power status may regain dominant power status if they reach a New Political Combinations Step at peace with all other major powers and in control of the territories needed to avoid the loss of dominant power status. Any changes in dominant power status must be announced during a New Political Combinations Step.

11.8.2: AFFECTS ACHEIVING OR LOSING DOMINANT POWER STATUS:

n11.8.2.1 MORALE: If Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain or Turkey become dominant powers, the morale value of the dominant power's regular infantry is increased by "+1.0" and, for Spanish and Turkish regular cavalry, morale is also increased by "+1.0" Turkish dominant power feudal infantry and feudal cavalry have their morale increased by "+0.5". If France or Great Britain lose their dominant status, the morale of the diminished status major power's regular infantry is reduced by "-1.0".

11.8.2.2 CHANGED NAVAL ADVANTAGES: For Great Britain, the loss of dominant status also means that their fleets lose their "+1" die roll modifier in naval combats and they must always take the first sequence in a Naval Phase. If Austria and/or Prussia become dominant powers their fleets lose their "-1" die roll modifier in naval combats.

11.8.2.3 CHANGED LAND PHASE SEQUENCE: If Austria, Prussia, Austria, Spain and/or Turkey becomes a dominant power while France remains a dominant power, France no longer gets to chose its spot in the sequence but must always take the first sequence in a Land Phase. If two or more of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain or Turkey become a dominant power while France is not a dominant power, France must always take the first sequence in a Land Phase. If only one of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain or Turkey is a dominant power while France is not a dominant power, France takes that major power's usual position in the sequence while the dominant major power may announce when it will take its sequence, the same as France usually does.

11.8.2.4 INCOME CHANGES: For Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain or Turkey, their total major power income is automatically increased by 10 money points on the Money and Manpower Collection Steps of every Economic Phase while a dominant power. For France or Great Britain, their total major power income is automatically reduced by 10 money points on the Money and Manpower Collection Steps of every Economic Phase while not a dominant power.

11.8.2.5 LEADER IMPROVEMENT: If Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain or Turkey become a dominant power, the controlling player may select one leader and consider that, for that one leader, there is an increase in strategic, tactical and tactical maximum rating numbers of "+1". EXCEPTION: No leader's ratings may be considered to be increased to exceed "5-5-6. "

11.8.2.6 PROVINCE CHANGES: At the moment a major power becomes a dominant power, all ceded provinces of other major powers that it controls become unceded provinces of the new dominant power's home nation. Any ceded provinces acquired later remain ceded provinces.

11.8.3 CONTROLLED TERRITORY REQUIRED TO GAIN DOMINANT STATUS: The following territories must be controlled by the given major power in order to achieve dominant status:

11.8.3.1 AUSTRIA: Must control all home nation provinces plus any 5 of the following 7 territories: the Bosnia province, the Confederation of the Rhine (even if reduced after creation-if not using option 11.5, Austria must control at least five out of Baden, Bavaria, Hanover, Hesse, Saxony or Wurttemburg, which count together as one territory), the Kingdom of Italy (even if reduced after creation-if not using option 11.2, Austria must control Lombardy, Papacy and Venetia, which count together as one territory), the Piedmont minor country, the Serbia province, the Silesia province and the Switzerland minor country.

11.8.3.2 PRUSSIA: Must control all home nation provinces plus any 4 of the following 6 territories: the Confederation of the Rhine (even if reduced after creation-if not using option 11.5, Prussia must control at least five out of Baden, Bavaria, Hanover, Hesse, Saxony or Wurttemburg, which count together as one territory), the Denmark minor country (with or without Norway), the Lorraine province, the Palatinate minor country, the Moravia province and Poland (must be created).

11.8.3.3 RUSSIA: Must control all home nation provinces plus any 6 of the following 7 territories: Armenia province, Bessarabia province, East Galicia province, Moldavia province, Poland (must be created), the minor country of Sweden (must include Finland) and West Galicia.

11.8.3.4 SPAIN: Must control all home nation provinces plus all 5 of the following territories: the minor country of Gibraltar, the Kingdom of Italy (even if reduced after creation-if not using option 11.3, Spain must control Lombardy, Papacy and Venetia, which count together as one territory), the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (both Naples and Sicily), the minor country of Morocco and the minor country of Portugal.

11.8.3.5 TURKEY: Must control all home nation provinces plus any 5 of the following 6 territories: the Crimea province, the Georgia province, the Military Border province, the Ottoman Empire (even if reduced after creation-if not using option 11.6, Turkey must control at least five out of Algeria, Cyrenica, Egypt, Morocco, Syria, Tripolitania or Tunisia, which count together as one territory), the Podolia province and the Transylvania province.

11.8.4 CONTROLLED TERRITORY LOSSES REQUIRED TO LOSE DOMINANT STATUS: France and Great Britain start as dominant powers and, to lose dominant status, must lose the control of the following territories:

11.8.4.1 FRANCE: Must lose control of any 6 of the following 7 territories: the Flanders minor country, the Holland minor country, the Lombardy minor country, the Lorraine province, the Palatinate minor country, the Piedmont minor country and the Switzerland minor country.

11.8.4.2 GREAT BRITAIN: Must lose control of any 6 of the following 7 territories: the Gibraltar minor country, the Hanover minor country (already lost at the start of every campaign game), the Ireland province, the Malta minor country, the Portugal minor country (neutral and not controlled by Great Britain in campaign games starting in 1805), the Scotland province and the Wales province.

[ 11.9 ] * POLITICAL RESTRICTIONS ON PEACE:

11.9.1 BALANCE OF POWER - RESTRICTIONS ON LOSSES: No matter how the major powers' rulers may have wanted to dominate the local landscape, they were all, to some extent, committed to leaving at least a "rump" of territory and authority to their peers. This also guarantees that any player who starts a game can still be in it when it ends. This can be reflected in two options, either or both of which can be used in a game:

11.9.1.1 RESTRICTIONS ON TERRITORIAL LOSSES: No major power with a player may ever have its home nation reduced by more than a total of three provinces.

11.9.1.2 RESTRICTIONS ON CIVIL DISORDER: No major power with a player may ever go into civil disorder. Ignore 8.7.1 through 8.7.5 for a major power with a player that meets the civil disorder requirements (see 8.7) and, instead, require that player to sue for and accept any type of peace during the next Peace Step with all major powers with which that major power was at war when the civil disorder conditions were met.

11.9.2 GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE AT WAR: No major powers necessarily start at war in the campaign games (14.4 and 14.7) that start in 1805 to give players the maximum flexibility in creating their own diplomatic climate. Actually, France and Great Britain were already at war and the duel between them was to continue to the bitter end. These optional rules recreate this competition:

11.9.2.1 START AT WAR: France and Great Britain must start at war in the campaign games starting in 1805. France and Great Britain may _never_ make an informal pace and, unless one or both have ceased to be dominant powers, may never be allies.

11.9.2.2 MANDATORY PEACE CONDITIONS: If France sues Great Britain for peace, Great Britain must demand an unconditional peace that includes peace condition C.6 to remove the NAPOLEON leader (unless already killed). Peace cannot be made if these conditions cannot be met (ie., if another major power with which France is making peace at the same time does not agree to the removal of NAPOLEON). If Great Britain sues France for peace, France must demand an unconditional peace that includes peace condition C.1.c (which could be chosen by any major power with which Great Britain is making peace at the same time) to remove two fleets and peace condition C.5, which must permit French major power forces access. They may never make an informal peace and may never be allies. These requirements are all dropped in a game using option 11.8 if either France or Great Britain ceases to be a dominant power and/or if one of the other major powers becomes a dominant power.

12.0 MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS

[ 12.1 ] * REINFORCEMENT OPTIONS:

12.1.1 MILITIA CONVERSION: During a Money and Manpower Expenditure Step, while at war with no other major power, a major power's player may remove any militia factors located in controlled home nation territory from the map and pay three money points per militia factor to "convert" them to regular infantry factors. These new regular infantry factors are returned to the map as reinforcements three months later (ie., the same as newly-purchased regular infantry factors).

12.1.2 SHIP BUILDING LOCATIONS: When ships are purchased, the exact port or ports where these ships will become available when completed (ie., where they are being "built") must be noted and announced (their building is common knowledge). These ports are the only ones where these ships can become available as reinforcements.

12.1.2.1: If a port city containing building and/or completed but unassigned ships is occupied by an enemy, all of these major power ships are considered to be destroyed.

12.1.2.2: If a minor free state port city containing building and/or completed but unassigned ships is occupied by an enemy, these minor power ships are not necessarily considered to be destroyed and, if building, construction can continue normally, as the major power that took the port desires (competitive die rolls determine the ships' fate if a mixed force occupies the port and agreement cannot be reached). Control of these ships will eventually go to the major power that controls both the minor country fleet counter and the port, so that the ships can be transferred to the fleet.

[ 12.2 ] * NAVAL OPTIONS:

12.2.1 OPTIONAL SEA CROSSING ARROWS:

12.2.1.1 CHANNEL ARROW: Consider that there is a sea crossing arrow between the Lille area and the area east of Portsmouth.

12.2.1.2 DANISH/SWEDISH SEA CROSSING ARROWS: These areas are extremely narrow and could be dominated even by the guns of the period. A fleet in the sea area cannot block any of the sea crossing arrows in Denmark or the one connecting the Copenhagen and Malmo areas if enemy corps and/or garrisons are located in both land areas connected by the arrows.

12.2.2 NAVAL RAIDING: For each sea area adjacent to Great Britain that contains an enemy fleet(s), British colonial trade is reduced by 5 money points (maximum reduction to "0"). This is determined during an Economic Phase.

12.2.3 MOVING LARGE FLEETS/TRANSPORTS: Larger fleets or fleets convoying transports are not as mobile as smaller fleets.

12.2.3.1: These rules apply to fleets in an area that are all controlled by one major power and/or using combined movement. They do not apply to fleets in the same area that are controlled by different major powers that are not using combined movement.

12.2.3.2: Any fleet starting its Naval Phase in a stack where some or all of the fleets are transporting corps and/or contain a depot for invasion supply loses "-1" movement point off of its movement allowance for the Naval Phase.

12.2.3.3: Any fleet starting its Naval Phase in a stack loses "-1" movement point off of its movement allowance for the Naval Phase per fleet in the stack in excess of one fleet. For example, the movement allowance in a stack of two fleets would be reduced to "6" and, in a stack of three fleets, would be reduced to "5".

12.2.3.4: Rules 12.2.3.2 and 12.2.3.3 are cumulative if both apply. However, the maximum movement allowance reduction that ever applies is "-3" movement points-a movement allowance of "4" movement points is the least to which a stack can be reduced.

12.2.3.5: These movement allowance reductions apply only to normal naval movement-they do not apply for naval retreat and pursuit movements.

12.2.4 REDUCED NAVAL TRANSPORT CAPACITY: If this option is used, rule 6.2.5 is modified to redefine carrying capacity. Fleets may carry no more than 10 army factors each, regardless of how these are organised into corps (the army factors must still be in corps). If transporting fleets are eliminated, all excess army factors that they were transporting are also eliminated these losses may be taken from various corps, if desired.

12.2.5 PROPORTIONAL NAVAL LOSSES: When a stack of fleets of mixed nationalities (including minor country nationalities) participates in a combat, the losses it takes should be as nearly proportional to the starting proportions as possible. Round ".5" and above up. When proportions do not "round out" precisely, an "odd" loss or losses should be assigned by mutual agreement or, if agreement cannot be reached, by competitive die rolls. For example, a stack of fleets totalling 68 ships contains 36 British (52.9%), 20 Swedish (29.4%) and 12 Portuguese (17.7%) ships and loses 10 ships in a naval combat. The losses should be 5.29 (5) British, 2.94 (3) Swedish and 1. 77 (2) Portuguese ships.

[ 12.3 ] LAND OPTIONS:

12.3.1 SUPPLY LIMITS PER DEPOT: Each individual depot that is a supply source or part of a valid supply chain may only be used to supply a maximum of four corps and/or besieged garrisons.

12.3.2 BRITISH TRAINING: Great Britain proved quite adept at turning certain minor country troops into first-class soldiers, notably the Portuguese and Hanoverian (the "King's German Legion" or "KGL") troops that they trained. Under this option, after 24 continuous months as a British-controlled minor free state, the morale of the army factors in the Hanover or Portugal corps is considered to be "4.0" for both infantry and cavalry in those corps. Garrison infantry factors of these nationalities retain their usual ("2.0") morale.

12.3.3 CAVALRY OPTIONS:

12.3.3.1 CAVALRY SUPERIORITY: If a side has at least twice as many cavalry factors (including cossacks and freikorps) as the other side at the beginning of any round of a field, limited field or trivial combat (if necessary, recalculate the number of cavalry factors present for every combat round), the superior side gets "+1" added to its combat die roll. NOTES: The net maximum modifier to a combat die roll for all modifiers is "+1". Cavalry factors in an outflanking force are not counted for cavalry superiority until the outflanking force "arrives" (see 7.5.2.12). Cavalry factors in an outflanking force that has arrived are not counted as double factors for purposes of determining cavalry superiority. This rule does not apply if all factors on both sides are cavalry.

12.3.3.2 CAVALRY WITHDRAWALS: A defending cavalry corps stacked alone or only with other cavalry corps and/or cossacks/freikorps has its strategic rating (or that of its commanding leader) increased by "+1" for withdrawal purposes only (see 7.5.2.5.2.2). This rule does not apply if the attacker is also an all-cavalry force and/or if the commanding leader has a strategic rating of 5. The Austrian Light Infantry Corps _is_ considered to be a cavalry corps for this purpose.

12.3.4 GUARD COMMITMENT: Before the resolution of a combat round commences (see 7.5.2.8 for sequencing), a player with a guard or grenadier corps involved may choose to "commit the guard" and announces that this is being done. If a force includes guard or grenadier corps of two or more nationalities, only one corps may be used for this purpose. A player may do this only once per day of combat.

12.3.4.1: If both sides have guard and/or grenadier corps, the decision to commit or not and (if applicable) the number of morale levels of the shift must be written down by both side's players at the start of every combat round and revealed simultaneously.

12.3.4.2: The effect of committing the guard is to increase the morale level used on the Combat Resolution Table by "+1" or "+2". For example, the "3-2" combat table becomes the "3-3" (increased by "+1") or "3-4" (increased by "+2") combat table.

12.3.4.3: Only two or more guard factors of French and/or Russian guards may be used to attempt to increase the morale level by "+2". One or more guard factors of Austrian, French, Prussian and/or Russian guard factors may be used to increase the morale level by "+1". Despite these minimums, all available guard factors of a nationality that is committed must be used for this. British and/or Spanish guard factors may not be committed.

12.3.4.4: The player who commits his guard then consults the GUARD COMMITMENT TABLE on the Game Card and rolls a die. The die roll is cross-referenced with the column showing the number of morale levels shifted. The result is the number of guard factors automatically lost (in addition to any that may be lost during the coming combat round).

12.3.4.5: If at least one guard factor of the committed nationality is left, then the combat round proceeds, with the modified morale level. The lost guard factors do not participate in the combat round. If all committed guard factors were lost, then the committing side is automatically considered to break without fighting that combat round (although the opposing side still fights).

12.3.4.6: If at least one guard factor survives and the combat round is fought with the modified morale level, the other side must be broken during that combat round or the side that committed the guard is automatically considered to be broken.

12.3.5 ARTILLERY CORPS: The French and Russian major powers each have the use of an artillery corps. These have special uses during field and limited field combats, trivial combats and limited field combats. These special uses do not apply during siege assaults or defender attacks (unless a relieving force is available for a limited field combat).

12.3.5.1: In every combat round (see 7.5.2.8 for sequencing) the artillery may be used to "bombard" before normal combat is resolved, the casualties inflicted by bombardment taking no part in later combat. If both sides possess artillery, the bombardment losses are considered to be determined simultaneously.

12.3.5.2: The losses removed by bombardment may not be militia, where possible, if the side taking the bombardment losses already has a morale loss of "2.0" or greater.

12.3.5.3: Artillery bombardment inflicts only casualties-it has no effect on morale (ignore morale losses when doing an artillery bombardment).

12.3.5.4: Artillery always bombards using the "5-5" table, irrespective of the tables being used for the normal combat round. Artillery bombardment is unaffected by any terrain other than marsh-there can be no bombardment in marsh terrain, although the artillery factors still participate in normal combat.

12.3.5.5: Artillery also takes part during the normal combat round (ie., when used for bombardment it effectively gets to fight twice). 12.3.5.6: If at any time during a combat round a side (or the pinning force of a side) consists of only artillery factors, that side is automatically considered to break.

12.3.6 PROPORTIONAL LAND LOSSES: When army factors of mixed nationality (including minor country nationalities) participate in a combat, the losses suffered should be as nearly proportional to the starting proportions as possible. Round ".5" and above up. When proportions do not "round out" precisely, an "odd" loss or losses should be assigned by mutual agreement or, if agreement cannot be reached, by competitive die rolls. Once the number of army factors lost by each contingent are determined, the controlling players decide the types of factors to be lost by each contingent (within the normal limits for militia, cavalry, guard, etc. factors that must be lost by the whole army) by mutual agreement or, if impossible, by competitive die rolls.

12.3.7 ARMY LEADER OPTIONS:

12.3.7.1 CORPS LEADERS: For purposes of combats (although without a leader counter corps must still attempt to withdraw or reinforce individually), when no leader is available for a multi-corps force and the best corps rating is used, treat these best corps ratings the same as if the force were commanded by a leader with those strategic and tactical ratings and a tactical maximum rating of "1" and modify accordingly (see 10.6.1.2.1).

12.3.7.2 FURTHER TACTICAL RATING REDUCTIONS: This option extends rule 10.6.1.2.1 by allowing a commander with three times the corps of the tactical maximum rating to have the tactical rating reduced by "-3", with four times the corps to be reduced by "-4", etc. The tactical rating can still never be reduced to below zero.

12.3.7.3 NAPOLEON'S RATINGS: Napoleon's military skill slipped noticeably as he got older. If this option is used, the NAPOLEON leader's tactical rating is reduced to "4" starting in January, 1809 and the strategic rating reduced to "4" starting in January, 1812. These reductions do not apply for combats fought within the original French home nation boundaries.

12.3.8 DETACHING/ABSORBING MINOR FREE STATE FACTORS: If players wish to allow free state factors to be detached as garrisons outside of the free state's borders, they may do so, but the players must keep side notes on the nationalities of garrisons, mark nationalities on grey garrison/strength counters placed outside of a free state's borders or make their own garrison/strength counters for the various possible minor free states.

12.3.9 NO CEDING: Allow the ceding of minor countries only as a peace term and at no other times.

12.3.10 OVERWHELMING NUMBERS: Field or limited field combats where one side has a 5:1 or better ratio in strength factors _must_ be resolved using trivial combat. EXCEPTION: An outnumbered _defender_ may attempt to withdraw before the trivial combat by rolling the commander's strategic rating or less.

[ 12.4 ] * PEACE TREATY LIMITED ACCESS: This option supersedes the force repatriation rules in 4.4.6.2 and forces are not repatriated when peace is made. Instead, when peace is made, the former enemies have a period of automatic "limited access" to get their forces out of the former enemy power's territory.

12.4.1 GARRISONS: By the end of three Land Phases after peace is made, all garrison factors must be out of the other major power's cities. In the case of a victor that chose peace condition C.5, the requirement is reduced to getting garrisons out of the capital cities during this period.

12.4.2 CORPS, FLEETS AND DEPOTS: By the end of six Land Phases after peace is made, all corps, fleets, depots and depot garrison factors must be out of the other major power's territory. This requirement can be ignored by a victor that chose peace condition C.5.

12.4.3 FAILURE TO LEAVE: Any forces that have not met the requirements in 12.4.1 and 12.4.2 in the required times must be demobilised and/or scuttled during the next Reinforcement Phase (NOTE: rule 5.1.4.2 limitations on scuttling may be ignored to meet this requirement) unless the major power controlling the territory grants voluntary access (see 10.3).

[ 12.5 ] * ECONOMIC MANIPULATION: Economic manipulation simulates the ability of a major power to control its economy to gain the additional political points, money or manpower that are needed. Economic manipulation takes place during the Manipulation Step of an Economic Phase (see 8.4). Performing economic manipulation consists of first recording changes from the last economic manipulation setting and then resetting the ECONOMIC MANIPULATION DISPLAY on side one of each major power's National Card (even if side two is used for everything else, this display on side one should be used with this option during a campaign game) for the next economic manipulation. The setting is always in the "O" square at the start of a campaign and 8.4.1 restrictions can limit the ability to use other settings.

12.5.1 RECORDING ECONOMIC MANIPULATION: Major powers gain or lose the number of political points specified by the large Political Status Adjustment ("PSA") number in the square of its ECONOMIC MANIPULATION DISPLAY in which that major power's economic manipulation marker is positioned. This square also specifies gains or losses in money and/or manpower. Record any political point changes on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card and add or subtract the money and manpower from the totals determined during the Money and Manpower Collection Step.

12.5.2 SETTING ECONOMIC MANIPULATION: The owning player then sets the economic manipulation marker's position to any square on the ECONOMIC MANIPULATION DISPLAY. This position specifies the PSA number and amount of money and/or manpower to be gained or lost in the next Economic Phase's Manipulation Step.

[ 12.6 ] BLANK FORMS: Copies of the blank forms found on side two of the Minor Countries National Card and the back of the Status Card can be filled out and used to provide a written record of when and what happened. Copies of these forms, when cut apart and filled in, not only provide reference during a game but, if used faithfully, they provide a good record of the major events in a game. Some samples are filled in below.

[ 12.7 ] LEADER CASUALTIES: After the completion of a field or limited field combat, a trivial combat, or a naval combat ,each side with a leader or leaders present checks to see if any became casualties in the combat by rolling two dice. Rolling a "12" indicates a leader casualty. If a casualty is indicated, randomly choose a leader counter from among those present (if more than one is present) and roll one die for the chosen leader. If a "6" is rolled, the leader casualty is "killed" and taken permanently from the game. On any other roll, the leader casualty is "wounded" and taken from the map for a number of complete months equal to the die roll number.

[ 12.8 ] * ALLIED VOLUNTARY ACCESS: Amend the rules in 10.3.1.2.2 to state that voluntary access may be granted only to an ally.

[ 12.9 ] * AMERICAN TRADE OPTION: The War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States was to some extent "engineered" by Napoleon and his "continental system. " In this option, if peace condition B.6 is applied to stop as major power's American trade, this counts as a major power denied trade with America for the die roll required in 8.2.1.2.2.2.2 and the British must make the die roll during any Money and Manpower Collection Step in which any major powers are denied American trade by Britain and/or by the B.6 peace condition.